Revascularization of ischemic limbs after transplantation of human bone marrow cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
ABSTRACT The development of cell therapies to treat peripheral vascular disease has proven difficult because of the contribution of multiple cell types that coordinate revascularization. We characterized the vascular regenerative potential of transplanted human bone marrow (BM) cells purified by high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(hi)) activity, a progenitor cell function conserved between several lineages. BM ALDH(hi) cells were enriched for myelo-erythroid progenitors that produced multipotent hematopoietic reconstitution after transplantation and contained nonhematopoietic precursors that established colonies in mesenchymal-stromal and endothelial culture conditions. The regenerative capacity of human ALDH(hi) cells was assessed by intravenous transplantation into immune-deficient mice with limb ischemia induced by femoral artery ligation/transection. Compared with recipients injected with unpurified nucleated cells containing the equivalent of 2- to 4-fold more ALDH(hi) cells, mice transplanted with purified ALDH(hi) cells showed augmented recovery of perfusion and increased blood vessel density in ischemic limbs. ALDH(hi) cells transiently recruited to ischemic regions but did not significantly integrate into ischemic tissue, suggesting that transient ALDH(hi) cell engraftment stimulated endogenous revascularization. Thus, human BM ALDH(hi) cells represent a progenitor-enriched population of several cell lineages that improves perfusion in ischemic limbs after transplantation. These clinically relevant cells may prove useful in the treatment of critical ischemia in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a latent tumor suppressor gene. To investigate the therapeutic effect of MnSOD and its mechanisms, a replication-competent recombinant adenovirus with E1B 55-kDa gene deletion (ZD55) was constructed, and human MnSOD and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) genes were inserted to form ZD55-MnSOD and ZD55-TRAIL. ZD55-MnSOD exhibited an inhibition in tumor cell growth approximately 1,000-fold greater than Ad-MnSOD. ZD55-TRAIL was shown to induce the MnSOD expression in SW620 cells. Accordingly, by the combined use of ZD55-MnSOD with ZD55-TRAIL (i.e., "dual gene virotherapy"), all established colorectal tumor xenografts were completely eliminated in nude mice. The evidence exists that the MnSOD overexpression led to a slower tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo as a result of apoptosis caused by MnSOD and TRAIL overexpression after adenoviral transduction. Our results showed that the production of hydrogen peroxide derived from MnSOD dismutation activated caspase-8, which might down-regulate Bcl-2 expression and induce Bax translocation to mitochondria. Subsequently, Bax translocation enhanced the release of apoptosis-initiating factor and cytochrome c. Cytochrome c finally triggered apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in apoptotic cascade. Bax-mediated apoptosis seems to be dependent on caspase-8 activation because the inhibition of caspase-8 prevented Bid processing and Bax translocation. In conclusion, our dual gene virotherapy completely eliminated colorectal tumor xenografts via enhanced apoptosis, and this novel strategy points toward a new direction of cancer treatment.Cancer Research 05/2006; 66(8):4291-8. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1834 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune-deficient mouse models of liver damage allow examination of human stem cell migration to sites of damage and subsequent contribution to repair and survival. In our studies, in the absence of a selective advantage, transplanted human stem cells from adult sources did not robustly become hepatocytes, although some level of fusion or hepatic differentiation was documented. However, injected stem cells did home to the injured liver tissue and release paracrine factors that hastened endogenous repair and enhanced survival. There were significantly higher levels of survival in mice with a toxic liver insult that had been transplanted with human stem cells but not in those transplanted with committed progenitors. Transplantation of autologous adult stem cells without conditioning is a relatively safe therapy. Adult stem cells are known to secrete bioactive factors that suppress the local immune system, inhibit fibrosis (scar formation) and apoptosis, enhance angiogenesis, and stimulate recruitment, retention, mitosis, and differentiation of tissue-residing stem cells. These paracrine effects are distinct from the direct differentiation of stem cells to repair tissue. In patients at high risk while waiting for a liver transplant, autologous stem cell therapy could be considered, as it could delay the decline in liver function.Seminars in Immunopathology 07/2009; 31(3):411-9. DOI:10.1007/s00281-009-0166-3 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult stem cell populations selected for use in cardiovascular clinical trials typically are mononuclear cell fractions of bone marrow and peripheral blood or cells of specific cell lineages selected by surface markers such as CD34 or CD133. This article describes a potent stem and progenitor cell population identified by an intracellular marker of "stemness" that crosses multiple lineages. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-bright (ALDH(br)) populations isolated from bone marrow contain potent stem and progenitor cells representing all cell types thought to be needed for ischemic repair and include hematopoietic, endothelial, mesenchymal, and neural progenitor cells. An animal model of hindlimb ischemia demonstrated that the ALDH(br) population was highly effective in restoring blood flow to ischemic limbs. Based upon the accumulating evidence for a potential therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived cells in ischemic disease in humans and the vascular regenerative potential of ALDH(br) cells in the hindlimb model, clinical trials to investigate the use of autologous bone marrow-derived ALDH(br) cells in patients with ischemic heart failure and critical limb ischemia were initiated. Study designs are described. Results of the completed study in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) are encouraging and are summarized. Results of 6-month follow-up for the study in ischemic heart failure are pending.Congestive Heart Failure 07/2009; 15(4):202-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-7133.2009.00101.x