Uterine atony: definition, prevention, nonsurgical management, and uterine tamponade.
ABSTRACT Uterine atony, or failure of the uterus to contract following delivery, is the most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage. This review serves to examine the prevention and treatment of uterine atony, including risk-factor recognition and active management of the third stage of labor. A range of uterotonic agents will be compared for efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Oxytocin and ergot alkaloids represent the cornerstone of uterotonic therapy, while prostaglandin therapy has been studied more recently as an attractive alternative, particularly for resource-poor settings. Newer supplementary medical therapies, such as recombinant factor VII and hemostatic agents, and adjunctive nonsurgical methods aimed at achieving uterine tamponade will be evaluated.
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ABSTRACT: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The majority of research on this topic has focused on efforts to prevent PPH. Sound data exist that active management of the third stage of labor can reduce the occurrence of PPH. Although there remains debate regarding the optimal protocol for active management, it appears at this time that oxytocin is the preferable uterotonic to use. Misoprostol may be a reasonable option where parenteral administration of an uterotonic is not feasible. There is little evidence to guide treatment decisions should PPH occur.Clinical obstetrics and gynecology 03/2010; 53(1):165-81. DOI:10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181ce0965
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ABSTRACT: To compare the rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications of uterine repair when performed in situ or extra-abdominally following cesarean delivery. In this prospective randomized study 4925 women who underwent cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to in situ (n = 2462) or extra-abdominal (n = 2463) uterine repair (group 1 and group 2, respectively). The study compares drop in hemoglobin concentration (as a measure of intraoperative blood loss). It also compares operating time, time to return of bowel sound, and duration of hospitalization as well as rates of uterine atony, blood transfusion, intraoperative complications, additional use postoperative analgesics, endometritis, and wound infection. Uterine atony developed in 96 women (3.8%) in group 1 and 226 women (9.1%) in group 2 (P = 0.001). Moreover, the operating time and the time to return of bowel sound were shorter and the rates of both additional use of postoperative analgesics and wound infection were lower in group 1 (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.001, and P = 0.003, respectively). Fewer cases of uterine atony, a shorter operating time, a faster return of bowel function, a lesser need for postoperative analgesics, and lower rates of additional use of postoperative analgesics and wound infections suggest that in-situ uterine repair ought to be preferred to extra-abdominal uterine repair following cesarean delivery.International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 11/2010; 111(2):175-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2010.06.009