Crystal structure of the GTPase-activating protein-related domain from IQGAP1.
ABSTRACT IQGAP1 is a 190-kDa molecular scaffold containing several domains required for interaction with numerous proteins. One domain is homologous to Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domains. However, instead of accelerating hydrolysis of bound GTP on Ras IQGAP1, using its GAP-related domain (GRD) binds to Cdc42 and Rac1 and stabilizes their GTP-bound states. We report here the crystal structure of the isolated IQGAP1 GRD. Despite low sequence conservation, the overall structure of the GRD is very similar to the GAP domains from p120 RasGAP, neurofibromin, and SynGAP. However, instead of the catalytic "arginine finger" seen in functional Ras GAPs, the GRD has a conserved threonine residue. GRD residues 1099-1129 have no structural equivalent in RasGAP and are seen to form an extension at one end of the molecule. Because the sequence of these residues is highly conserved, this region likely confers a functionality particular to IQGAP family GRDs. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to demonstrate that the isolated GRD binds to active Cdc42. Assuming a mode of interaction similar to that displayed in the Ras-RasGAP complex, we created an energy-minimized model of Cdc42.GTP bound to the GRD. Residues of the GRD that contact Cdc42 map to the surface of the GRD that displays the highest level of sequence conservation. The model indicates that steric clash between threonine 1046 with the phosphate-binding loop and other subtle changes would likely disrupt the proper geometry required for GTP hydrolysis.
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ABSTRACT: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islet beta-cell involves a sequence of metabolic events and an interplay between a wide range of signaling pathways leading to the generation of second messengers (e.g., cyclic nucleotides, adenine and guanine nucleotides, soluble lipid messengers) and mobilization of calcium ions. Consequent to the generation of necessary signals, the insulin-laden secretory granules are transported from distal sites to the plasma membrane for fusion and release of their cargo into the circulation. The secretory granule transport underlies precise changes in cytoskeletal architecture involving a well-coordinated cross-talk between various signaling proteins, including small molecular mass GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) and their respective effector proteins. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of current understanding of the identity of small G proteins (e.g., Cdc42, Rac1, and ARF-6) and their corresponding regulatory factors (e.g., GDP/GTP-exchange factors, GDP-dissociation inhibitors) in the pancreatic beta-cell. Plausible mechanisms underlying regulation of these signaling proteins by insulin secretagogues are also discussed. In addition to their positive modulatory roles, certain small G proteins also contribute to the metabolic dysfunction and demise of the islet beta-cell seen in in vitro and in vivo models of impaired insulin secretion and diabetes. Emerging evidence also suggests significant insulin secretory abnormalities in small G protein knockout animals, further emphasizing vital roles for these proteins in normal health and function of the islet beta-cell. Potential significance of these experimental observations from multiple laboratories and possible avenues for future research in this area of islet research are highlighted.Endocrine reviews 11/2009; 31(1):52-78. DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0022 · 19.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IQGAP1, an effector of CDC42p GTPase, is a widely conserved, multifunctional protein that bundles F-actin through its N-terminus and binds microtubules through its C-terminus to modulate the cell architecture. It has emerged as a potential oncogene associated with diverse human cancers. Therefore, IQGAP1 has been heavily investigated; regardless, its precise cellular function remains unclear. Work from yeast suggests that IQGAP1 plays an important role in directed cell growth, which is a conserved feature crucial to morphogenesis, division axis, and body plan determination. New evidence suggests a conserved role for IQGAP1 in protein synthesis and membrane traffic, which may help to explain the diversity of its cellular functions. Membrane traffic mediates infections by intracellular pathogens and a range of degenerative human diseases arise from dysfunctions in intracellular traffic; thus, elucidating the mechanisms of cellular traffic will be important in order to understand the basis of a wide range of inherited and acquired human diseases. Recent evidence suggests that IQGAP1 plays its role in cell growth through regulating the conserved mTOR pathway. The mTOR signaling cascade has been implicated in membrane traffic and is activated in nearly all human cancers, but clinical response to the mTOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin has been disappointing. Thus, understanding the regulators of this pathway will be crucial in order to identify predictors of rapamycin sensitivity. In this review, I discuss emerging evidence that supports a potential role of IQGAP1 in regulating membrane traffic via regulating the mTOR pathway.The Scientific World Journal 01/2010; 10:944-53. DOI:10.1100/tsw.2010.85 · 1.73 Impact Factor