Crystal structure of the GTPase-activating protein-related domain from IQGAP1.
ABSTRACT IQGAP1 is a 190-kDa molecular scaffold containing several domains required for interaction with numerous proteins. One domain is homologous to Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domains. However, instead of accelerating hydrolysis of bound GTP on Ras IQGAP1, using its GAP-related domain (GRD) binds to Cdc42 and Rac1 and stabilizes their GTP-bound states. We report here the crystal structure of the isolated IQGAP1 GRD. Despite low sequence conservation, the overall structure of the GRD is very similar to the GAP domains from p120 RasGAP, neurofibromin, and SynGAP. However, instead of the catalytic "arginine finger" seen in functional Ras GAPs, the GRD has a conserved threonine residue. GRD residues 1099-1129 have no structural equivalent in RasGAP and are seen to form an extension at one end of the molecule. Because the sequence of these residues is highly conserved, this region likely confers a functionality particular to IQGAP family GRDs. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to demonstrate that the isolated GRD binds to active Cdc42. Assuming a mode of interaction similar to that displayed in the Ras-RasGAP complex, we created an energy-minimized model of Cdc42.GTP bound to the GRD. Residues of the GRD that contact Cdc42 map to the surface of the GRD that displays the highest level of sequence conservation. The model indicates that steric clash between threonine 1046 with the phosphate-binding loop and other subtle changes would likely disrupt the proper geometry required for GTP hydrolysis.
Article: Role of IQGAP1, a target of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1, in regulation of E-cadherin- mediated cell-cell adhesion.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Cdc42 and Rac1 regulate E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. IQGAP1, a target of Cdc42 and Rac1, was localized with E-cadherin and beta-catenin at sites of cell-cell contact in mouse L fibroblasts expressing E-cadherin (EL cells), and interacted with E-cadherin and beta-catenin both in vivo and in vitro. IQGAP1 induced the dissociation of alpha-catenin from a cadherin-catenin complex in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of IQGAP1 in EL cells, but not in L cells expressing an E-cadherin-alpha-catenin chimeric protein, resulted in a decrease in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesive activity. Thus, IQGAP1, acting downstream of Cdc42 and Rac1, appears to regulate cell-cell adhesion through the cadherin-catenin pathway.Science 09/1998; 281(5378):832-5. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Members of the Rho family of small G proteins transduce signals from plasma-membrane receptors and control cell adhesion, motility and shape by actin cytoskeleton formation. They also activate other kinase cascades. Like all other GTPases, Rho proteins act as molecular switches, with an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form. The active conformation is promoted by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, and the inactive state by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) which stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of small G proteins. Rho-specific GAP domains are found in a wide variety of large, multi-functional proteins. Here we report the crystal structure of an active 242-residue C-terminal fragment of human p50rhoGAP. The structure is an unusual arrangement of nine alpha-helices, the core of which includes a four-helix bundle. Residues conserved across the rhoGAP family are largely confined to one face of this bundle, which may be an interaction site for target G proteins. In particular, we propose that Arg 85 and Asn 194 are involved in binding G proteins and enhancing GTPase activity.Nature 02/1997; 385(6615):458-61. · 36.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most damaging change during cancer progression is the switch from a locally growing tumour to a metastatic killer. This switch is believed to involve numerous alterations that allow tumour cells to complete the complex series of events needed for metastasis. Relatively few genes have been implicated in these events. Here we use an in vivo selection scheme to select highly metastatic melanoma cells. By analysing these cells on DNA arrays, we define a pattern of gene expression that correlates with progression to a metastatic phenotype. In particular, we show enhanced expression of several genes involved in extracellular matrix assembly and of a second set of genes that regulate, either directly or indirectly, the actin-based cytoskeleton. One of these, the small GTPase RhoC, enhances metastasis when overexpressed, whereas a dominant-negative Rho inhibits metastasis. Analysis of the phenotype of cells expressing dominant-negative Rho or RhoC indicates that RhoC is important in tumour cell invasion. The genomic approach allows us to identify families of genes involved in a process, not just single genes, and can indicate which molecular and cellular events might be important in complex biological processes such as metastasis.Nature 09/2000; 406(6795):532-5. · 36.28 Impact Factor