Metastasis-related plasma membrane proteins of human breast cancer cells identified by comparative quantitative mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT The spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to form metastasis at distant sites is a complex multistep process. The cancer cell proteins and plasma membrane proteins in particular involved in this process are poorly defined, and a study of the very early events of the metastatic process using clinical samples or in vitro assays is not feasible. We have used a unique model system consisting of two isogenic human breast cancer cell lines that are equally tumorigenic in mice; but although one gives rise to metastasis, the other disseminates single cells that remain dormant at distant organs. Membrane purification and comparative quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomics identified 13 membrane proteins that were expressed at higher levels and three that were underexpressed in the metastatic compared with the non-metastatic cell line from a total of 1919 identified protein entries. Among the proteins were ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), NDRG1, integrin beta1, CD44, CD74, and major histocompatibility complex class II proteins. The altered expression levels of proteins identified by LC-MS/MS were validated using flow cytometry, Western blotting, and immunocyto- and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of clinical breast cancer biopsies demonstrated a significant correlation between high ecto-5'-nucleotidase and integrin beta1 expression and poor outcome, measured as tumor spread or distant recurrence within a 10-year follow-up. Further the tissue analysis suggested that NDRG1, HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DRbeta, and CD74 were associated with the ER(-)/PR(-) phenotype represented by the two cell lines. The study demonstrates a quantitative and comparative proteomics strategy to identify clinically relevant key molecules in the early events of metastasis, some of which may prove to be potential targets for cancer therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Membrane proteins are involved in central processes such as cell signaling, cell-cell interactions and communication, ion and metabolite transport and in general play a crucial role in cell homeostasis. Cancer and cancer metastasis have been correlated to protein expression levels and dysfunction, with membrane proteins playing an important role, and are thus used as drug targets and potential biomarkers for prognostic or diagnostic purposes. Despite the critical biological significance of membrane proteins, proteomic analysis has been a challenging task due to their hydrophobicity. In this review, recent advances in the proteomic analysis of membrane proteins are presented, focusing on membrane fraction enrichment techniques combined with labeled or label-free shotgun proteomics approaches for the identification of potential cancer biomarkers.Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 05/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HCP and ASK are co-first authors. Cancer metastasis is the main contributor to breast cancer fatalities as women with the metastatic disease have poorer survival outcomes than women with localised breast cancers. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate prognostic methods to stratify patients based on the propensities of their cancers to metastasise. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I: IGF binding protein (IGFBP):vitronectin complexes have been shown to stimulate changes in gene expression favouring increased breast cancer cell survival and a migratory phenotype. We therefore investigated the prognostic potential of these IGF- and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-induced proteins in the early identification of breast cancers with a propensity to metastasise using patient-derived tissue microarrays.BMC Cancer 08/2014; 14(1):627. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular ATP has been shown to either inhibit or promote cancer growth and migration; however, the mechanism underlying this discrepancy remained elusive. Here we demonstrate the divergent roles of ATP and adenosine released by bone osteocytes on breast cancers. We showed that conditioned media (CM) collected from osteocytes treated with alendronate (AD), a bisphosphonate drug, inhibited the migration of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Removal of the extracellular ATP by apyrase in CM abolished this effect, suggesting the involvement of ATP. ATP exerted its inhibitory effect through the activation of purinergic P2X receptor signaling in breast cancer cells evidenced by the attenuation of the inhibition by an antagonist, oxidized ATP, as well as knocking down P2X7 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the inhibition of migration by an agonist, BzATP. Intriguingly, ATP had a biphasic effect on breast cancer cells-lower dosage inhibited but higher dosage promoted its migration. The stimulatory effect on migration was blocked by an adenosine receptor antagonist, MRS1754, ARL67156, an ecto-ATPase inhibitor, and A2A receptor siRNA, suggesting that in contrast to ATP, adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP, promoted migration of breast cancer cells. Consistently, non-hydrolyzable ATP, ATPγS, only inhibited but did not promote cancer cell migration. ATP also had a similar inhibitory effect on the Py8119 mouse mammary carcinoma cells; however, adenosine had no effect owing to the absence of the A2A receptor. Consistently, ATPγS inhibited, whereas adenosine promoted anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our in vivo xenograft study showed a significant delay of tumor growth with the treatment of ATPγS. Moreover, the extent of bone metastasis in a mouse intratibial model was significantly reduced with the treatment of ATPγS. Together, our results suggest the distinct roles of ATP and adenosine released by osteocytes and the activation of corresponding receptors P2X7 and A2A signaling on breast cancer cell growth, migration and bone metastasis.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 May 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.113.Oncogene. 05/2014;