The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 9:88

Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, St Paul's Hospital, BC, Canada.
BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.26). 04/2009; 9(1):88. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-88
Source: PubMed


Overweight and obese persons are at risk of a number of medical conditions which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of this study is to provide an estimate of the incidence of each co-morbidity related to obesity and overweight using a meta-analysis.
A literature search for the twenty co-morbidities identified in a preliminary search was conducted in Medline and Embase (Jan 2007). Studies meeting the inclusion criteria (prospective cohort studies of sufficient size reporting risk estimate based on the incidence of disease) were extracted. Study-specific unadjusted relative risks (RRs) on the log scale comparing overweight with normal and obese with normal were weighted by the inverse of their corresponding variances to obtain a pooled RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
A total of 89 relevant studies were identified. The review found evidence for 18 co-morbidities which met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis determined statistically significant associations for overweight with the incidence of type II diabetes, all cancers except esophageal (female), pancreatic and prostate cancer, all cardiovascular diseases (except congestive heart failure), asthma, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis and chronic back pain. We noted the strongest association between overweight defined by body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of type II diabetes in females (RR = 3.92 (95% CI: 3.10-4.97)). Statistically significant associations with obesity were found with the incidence of type II diabetes, all cancers except esophageal and prostate cancer, all cardiovascular diseases, asthma, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis and chronic back pain. Obesity defined by BMI was also most strongly associated with the incidence of type II diabetes in females (12.41 (9.03-17.06)).
Both overweight and obesity are associated with the incidence of multiple co-morbidities including type II diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Maintenance of a healthy weight could be important in the prevention of the large disease burden in the future. Further studies are needed to explore the biological mechanisms that link overweight and obesity with these co-morbidities.

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    • "The enormous health and economic tolls of obesity and its profound adverse effects on quality of life underscore the need for both increased prevention and effective treatment [3] [4]. Obesity has been linked to more than 65 comorbidities, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension , hypercholesterolemia, more than a dozen cancers, and a host of other disease processes [5]. Although obesity has a substantial impact on patient care in all disciplines in medicine, physician and medical student education about obesity is limited [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective . US primary care physicians are inadequately educated on how to provide obesity treatment. We sought to assess physician training in obesity and to characterize the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and treatment patterns of primary care physicians. Methods . We administered a cross-sectional web-based survey from July to October 2014 to adult primary care physicians in practices affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). We evaluated survey respondent demographics, personal health habits, obesity training, knowledge of bariatric surgery care, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the etiology of obesity and treatment strategies. Results . Younger primary care physicians (age 20–39) were more likely to have received some obesity training than those aged 40–49 (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.008–0.822) or those 50+ (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004–0.321). Physicians who were young, had obesity, or received obesity education in medical school or postgraduate training were more likely to answer bariatric surgery knowledge questions correctly. Conclusions . There is a need for educational programs to improve physician knowledge and competency in treating patients with obesity. Obesity is a complex chronic disease, and it is important for clinicians to be equipped with the knowledge of the multiple treatment modalities that may be considered to help their patients achieve a healthy weight.
    09/2015; 2015(82):841249. DOI:10.1155/2015/841249
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    • "The prevalence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, certain cancers, and osteoarthritis among other conditions [1] [2]. There is also a growing body of epidemiological data linking obesity and asthma [3e5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the close link between asthma and obesity, there are no studies that have evaluated the sensory and physiological responses to exercise in obese asthmatics. We recently demonstrated that normal weight asthmatics with well controlled disease have preserved cardiorespiratory and sensory responses to exercise relative to non-asthmatic controls. However, these similarities may not hold true in patients with combined obesity and asthma. Accordingly, we sought to determine if combined asthma and obesity was associated with deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise performance, dyspnoea, and physiological responses to exercise. Fourteen well-controlled obese asthmatics and fourteen age-matched normal weight asthmatics performed routine spirometry and underwent an incremental cardiopulmonary cycle test to assess the ventilatory, pulmonary gas exchange, cardiovascular, and sensory responses to exercise. Groups were well matched for age, height, spirometry, and asthma control. Obese asthmatics had a significantly greater body mass index (33 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 1 kg/m(2), p < 0.001) and lower self-reported activity levels by 47 % relative to normal weight asthmatics (p < 0.05). Obese asthmatics had a significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) (82 ± 14 vs. 92 ± 10 %predicted) and work rate (75 ± 8 vs. 89 ± 13 %predicted) relative to normal weight asthmatics (p < 0.05). The anaerobic threshold occurred at a lower VO2 in obese asthmatics vs. normal weight asthmatics (54 ± 15 vs. 66 ± 16 %predicted, p < 0.05). Ventilatory responses were superimposed throughout exercise with no evidence of a ventilatory limitation in either group. Cardiovascular responses were normal in both groups. Dyspnoea responses were similar but the obese asthmatics experienced greater leg fatigue ratings at submaximal work rates. In conclusion, obese individuals with well controlled asthma have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and greater leg fatigue ratings relative to normal weight asthmatics. The relatively reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise performance in obese compared to normal weight asthmatics is most likely driven by their more sedentary lifestyle and resultant deconditioning rather than due to respiratory factors.
    Respiratory medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2015.09.010 · 3.09 Impact Factor
    • "Obese children are at risk for being overweight or obese adults [7]. Because obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cancer, and other immune-related disorders such as asthma and infection, it is especially worrying when it accompanies some other chronic disease state [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Determination of overweight and obesity prevalence in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study. The study group consisted of children with new cases of IBD diagnosed in 2005-2013 according to the Porto criteria. Hospital admission records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. BMI-for-age and gender percentile charts were used to define overweight as ≥85th BMI percentile and obesity as ≥95th BMI percentile. Results: 675 patients were evaluated: 368 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 307 with ulcerative colitis (UC). Of these, 54.8% were boys and 45.2% were girls. There were no statistically significant differences in age, weight, height and disease activity between the CD and UC patients. The UC patients had higher BMI values than the CD patients. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the UC than the CD patients (4.89% CI95 2.76-7.93 vs. 2.45% CI95 1.12-4.59 and 8.47% CI95 5.61-12.16 vs. 1.9% CI95 0.77-3.88, respectively); the differences were statistically significant (-2.44% CI95 -5.45 to 0.49 and -6.57% CI95 -10 to -3.1, respectively). The risk of overweight/obesity was 3.5 times higher for patients with UC (OR=0.272, CI95 0.14-0.49, p=0.0004). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in newly diagnosed children with IBD was 8.4% and was higher in patients with UC than in patients with CD. The results of this study have shown that not only malnourished children may suffer from IBD but also children who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis.
    Advances in Medical Sciences 08/2015; 61(1). DOI:10.1016/j.advms.2015.07.004 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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