Venous ulcers: A reappraisal analyzing the effects of neuropathy, muscle involvement, and range of motion upon gait and calf muscle function
ABSTRACT Chronic venous insufficiency is a complex disease that can result in severe sequelae including venous ulceration. Though the exact progression from chronic venous insufficiency to venous ulcer remains unclear, the high cost and burden of this disease on patients and society is quite clear. Sustained ambulatory venous pressures or venous hypertension plays an integral role in the development of venous ulceration and involves the failure of the calf muscle pump system. Standard of care involves compression therapy to assist the calf muscle pump. However, several cofactors may contribute to or exacerbate this disease and understanding their impact may provide insight into new treatment modalities. Nerve involvement, which may result in neuropathic pain and muscle dysfunction, alterations in mobility and a decrease in range of motion may lead to gait alterations all affecting calf muscle pump function. In this paper, we analyze these cofactors and discuss possible treatment options to target them. Physicians treating this disease should be aware of the numerous factors involved in its development. Exploring new treatment options may 1 day lessen the burden and suffering caused by venous insufficiency.
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ABSTRACT: Limitation of ankle movement may contribute to calf muscle pump failure, which is thought to contribute to venous leg ulcer formation, which affects nearly 1 million Americans. We therefore wished to study ankle movement in patients with venous leg ulcers and its effect on healing. Using goniometry, we measured baseline ankle range of motion in venous leg ulcer patients from a Phase 2 dose-finding study of an allogeneic living cell bioformulation. Two hundred twenty-seven patients were enrolled in four active treatment groups and one standard-care control group, all receiving compression therapy. Goniometry data from a control group of 49 patients without venous disease, from a previous study, was used for comparison. We found patients with active venous leg ulcers had significantly reduced ankle range of motion compared with the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks of therapy, baseline ankle range of motion was not associated with healing, as there was no significant difference between healed and nonhealed groups, suggesting that ankle range of motion is not important in venous leg ulcer healing or, more likely, is overcome by compression. However, patients with venous ulcers located on the leg (as opposed to the ankle) had significantly higher ankle range of motion for plantar flexion and inversion (p = 0.021 and p = 0.034, respectively) and improved healing with both cell bioformulation and standard care (p = 0.011), suggesting that wound location is an important variable for ankle range of motion as well as for healing outcomes.Wound Repair and Regeneration 07/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1111/wrr.12186 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) in improving health-related quality of life (HRQL), symptomatology and physical status in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 10/2014; 96(2). DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.020 · 2.44 Impact Factor
International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 04/2014; 33(2):87-208. · 1.01 Impact Factor