Numerous studies have demonstrated that collaborative care (care management) for depression improves outcomes, yet few clinics have implemented this evidence-based practice. To promote adoption of this best practice, our objective was to describe the steps needed to tailor collaborative care models for local needs, resources, and priorities while maintaining fidelity to the evidence base. Based on lessons learned from 2 multisite Veterans Affairs implementation studies conducted in 2 different clinical, organizational, and geographic contexts, we describe in detail the steps needed to adapt an evidence-based collaborative care program for depression for local context while maintaining highly fidelity to the research evidence. These steps represent a detailed checklist of decisions and action items that can be used as a tool to plan the implementation of a collaborative care model for depression. We also identify other tools (eg, decision support systems, suicide risk assessment) and resources (eg, training materials) that will support implementation efforts. These implementation tools should help clinicians and administrators develop informed strategies for rolling out collaborative care models for depression.
"Thus, EBQI is intended to foster a researcher/clinician partnership that promotes buy-in from leadership [40,41]. Lack of support from leadership has been shown to be one of the most important barriers to the implementation of the CCM . While emphasizing the involvement of outside experts and empirical evidence, EBQI stresses that an organization's own healthcare professionals and staff are best positioned to improve their systems . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collaborative-care management is an evidence-based practice for improving depression outcomes in primary care. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has mandated the implementation of collaborative-care management in its satellite clinics, known as Community Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOCs). However, the organizational characteristics of CBOCs present added challenges to implementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) as a strategy to facilitate the adoption of collaborative-care management in CBOCs.
This nonrandomized, small-scale, multisite evaluation of EBQI was conducted at three VA Medical Centers and 11 of their affiliated CBOCs. The Plan phase of the EBQI process involved the localized tailoring of the collaborative-care management program to each CBOC. Researchers ensured that the adaptations were evidence based. Clinical and administrative staff were responsible for adapting the collaborative-care management program for local needs, priorities, preferences and resources. Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were used to refine the program over time. The evaluation was based on the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) Framework and used data from multiple sources: administrative records, web-based decision-support systems, surveys, and key-informant interviews.
Adoption: 69.0% (58/84) of primary care providers referred patients to the program. Reach: 9.0% (298/3,296) of primary care patients diagnosed with depression who were not already receiving specialty care were enrolled in the program. Fidelity: During baseline care manager encounters, education/activation was provided to 100% (298/298) of patients, barriers were assessed and addressed for 100% (298/298) of patients, and depression severity was monitored for 100% (298/298) of patients. Less than half (42.5%, 681/1603) of follow-up encounters during the acute stage were completed within the timeframe specified. During the acute phase of treatment for all trials, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) symptom-monitoring tool was used at 100% (681/681) of completed follow-up encounters, and self-management goals were discussed during 15.3% (104/681) of completed follow-up encounters. During the acute phase of treatment for pharmacotherapy and combination trials, medication adherence was assessed at 99.1% (575/580) of completed follow-up encounters, and side effects were assessed at 92.4% (536/580) of completed follow-up encounters. During the acute phase of treatment for psychotherapy and combination trials, counseling session adherence was assessed at 83.3% (239/287) of completed follow-up encounters. Effectiveness: 18.8% (56/298) of enrolled patients remitted (symptom free) and another 22.1% (66/298) responded to treatment (50% reduction in symptom severity). Maintenance: 91.9% (10/11) of the CBOCs chose to sustain the program after research funds were withdrawn.
Provider adoption was good, although reach into the target population was relatively low. Fidelity and maintenance were excellent, and clinical outcomes were comparable to those in randomized controlled trials. Despite the organizational barriers, these findings suggest that EBQI is an effective facilitation strategy for CBOCs.
Clinical trial # NCT00317018.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigators recently tested the effectiveness of a collaborative-care intervention for anxiety disorders: Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management(CALM) ) in 17 primary care clinics around the United States. Investigators also conducted a qualitative process evaluation. Key research questions were as follows: (1) What were the facilitators/barriers to implementing CALM? (2) What were the facilitators/barriers to sustaining CALM after the study was completed?
Key informant interviews were conducted with 47 clinic staff members (18 primary care providers, 13 nurses, 8 clinic administrators, and 8 clinic staff) and 14 study-trained anxiety clinical specialists (ACSs) who coordinated the collaborative care and provided cognitive behavioral therapy. The interviews were semistructured and conducted by phone. Data were content analyzed with line-by-line analyses leading to the development and refinement of themes.
Similar themes emerged across stakeholders. Important facilitators to implementation included the perception of "low burden" to implement, provider satisfaction with the intervention, and frequent provider interaction with ACSs. Barriers to implementation included variable provider interest in mental health, high rates of part-time providers in clinics, and high social stressors of lower socioeconomic-status patients interfering with adherence. Key sustainability facilitators were if a clinic had already incorporated collaborative care for another disorder and presence of onsite mental health staff. The main barrier to sustainability was funding for the ACS.
The CALM intervention was relatively easy to incorporate during the effectiveness trial, and satisfaction was generally high. Numerous implementation and sustainability barriers could limit the reach and impact of widespread adoption. Findings should be interpreted with the knowledge that the ACSs in this study were provided and trained by the study. Future research should explore uptake of CALM and similar interventions without the aid of an effectiveness trial.
"Key to sustainable implementation is adaptation of a clinical program to fit the local context and needs while ensuring fidelity to the program's core components (Griest, 1991). To accomplish this for the PCMH program, the internal and external facilitators met with primary care, mental health care, and nursing leadership , the PCMH providers, and other key program staff (e.g., suicide prevention coordinators ) during the site visit and worked through an adaptation checklist based on work in two prior related studies (Fortney et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successfully spreading innovation across large health care systems is a complex process requiring participation of stakeholders from a broad spectrum of professional backgrounds, skill sets, and organizational levels. We describe a process for engaging and activating stakeholders across individual, team, organization, and system levels to implement primary care-mental health integrated care programs in one regional Veterans Affairs health care network. Key stakeholders and researchers collaborated to propose and implement the program. Preliminary findings indicate that the program may reduce referrals to specialty mental health care.
Families Systems & Health 06/2010; 28(2):161-74. DOI:10.1037/a0020250 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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