Article

Worldwide distribution of HIV type 1 epitopes recognized by human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies.

New York University School of Medicine, Departments of Pharmacology, Pathology and Environmental Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.
AIDS research and human retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.18). 04/2009; 25(4):441-50. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2008.0188
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epitopes, also known as antigenic determinants, are small clusters of specific atoms within macromolecules that are recognized by the immune system. Such epitopes can be targeted with vaccines designed to protect against specific pathogens. The third variable loop (V3 loop) of the HIV-1 pathogen's gp120 surface envelope glycoprotein can be a highly sensitive neutralization target. We derived sequence motifs for the V3 loop epitopes recognized by the human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 447-52D and 2219. Searching the HIV database for the occurrence of each epitope motif in worldwide viruses and correcting the results based on published WHO epidemiology reveal that the 447-52D epitope we defined occurs in 13% of viruses infecting patients worldwide: 79% of subtype B viruses, 1% of subtype C viruses, and 7% of subtype A/AG sequences. In contrast, the epitope we characterized for human anti-V3 mAb 2219 is present in 30% of worldwide isolates but is evenly distributed across the known HIV-1 subtypes: 48% of subtype B strains, 40% of subtype C, and 18% of subtype A/AG. Various assays confirmed that the epitopes corresponding to these motifs, when expressed in the SF162 Env backbone, were sensitively and specifically neutralized by the respective mAbs. The method described here is capable of accurately determining the worldwide occurrence and subtype distribution of any crystallographically resolved HIV-1 epitope recognized by a neutralizing antibody, which could be useful for multivalent vaccine design. More importantly, these calculations demonstrate that globally relevant, structurally conserved epitopes are present in the sequence variable V3 loop.

1 Bookmark
 · 
59 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This 8-year longitudinal study was aimed to analyze the HIV-1 gp120-C2V3C3 sequence dynamics, their phylogenetic relationships and tropism evolution in patients under HAART. Such viral analysis comprised two compartments: plasma and PBMC. Fifty gp120-C2V3C3 genomic sequences were characterized from 16 patients: 41 from plasma when viremia was measurable and 9 from PBMCs if plasma viral load was undetectable. The vast majority of HIV isolates (43 out of 50) were ascribed to BF subtype, irrespective of the compartment (plasma or mononuclear-cells) analyzed. A statistically well-supported clustering phenomenon was observed for each patient sampling data. Each cluster comprised viral sequences from both compartments analyzed. In the vast majority of cases, the viral sequences obtained along active production periods were intermingled with those identified from proviral sequences. A substantial stability of co-receptor tropism for the HIV BF subtype was observed over an 8-year followup.
    Virus Genes 03/2013; · 1.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-1's subtype C V3 loop consensus sequence exhibits increased resistance to anti-V3 antibody-mediated neutralization as compared to the subtype B consensus sequence. The dynamic 3D structure of the consensus C V3 loop crown, visualized by ab initio folding, suggested that the resistance derives from structural rigidity and non-β-strand secondary protein structure in the N-terminal strand of the β-hairpin of the V3 loop crown, which is where most known anti-V3 loop antibodies bind. The observation of either rigidity or non-β-strand structure in this region correlated with observed resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization in a series of chimeric pseudovirus (psV) mutants. The results suggest the presence of an epitope-independent, neutralization-relevant structural difference in the antibody-targeted region of the V3 loop crown between subtype C and subtype B, a difference that we hypothesize may contribute to the divergent pattern of global spread between these subtypes. As antibodies to a variable loop were recently identified as an inverse correlate of risk for HIV infection, the structure-function relationships discussed in this study may have relevance to HIV vaccine research.
    Advances in Virology 01/2012; 2012:803535.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extreme diversity of HIV-1 strains presents a formidable challenge for HIV-1 vaccine design. Although antibodies (Abs) can neutralize HIV-1 and potentially protect against infection, antibodies that target the immunogenic viral surface protein gp120 have widely variable and poorly predictable cross-strain reactivity. Here, we developed a novel computational approach, the Method of Dynamic Epitopes, for identification of neutralization epitopes targeted by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our data demonstrate that this approach, based purely on calculated energetics and 3D structural information, accurately predicts the presence of neutralization epitopes targeted by V3-specific mAbs 2219 and 447-52D in any HIV-1 strain. The method was used to calculate the range of conservation of these specific epitopes across all circulating HIV-1 viruses. Accurately identifying an Ab-targeted neutralization epitope in a virus by computational means enables easy prediction of the breadth of reactivity of specific mAbs across the diversity of thousands of different circulating HIV-1 variants and facilitates rational design and selection of immunogens mimicking specific mAb-targeted epitopes in a multivalent HIV-1 vaccine. The defined epitopes can also be used for the purpose of epitope-specific analyses of breakthrough sequences recorded in vaccine clinical trials. Thus, our study is a prototype for a valuable tool for rational HIV-1 vaccine design.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89987. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from