Previous work by our group showed that human immunodeficiency virus type -1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug resistance mutations has defects in RNase H activity as well as reduced amounts of RT protein in virions. These deficits correlate with replication fitness in the absence of NNRTIs. Viruses with the mutant combination K101E+G190S replicated better in the presence of NNRTIs than in the absence of drug. Stimulation of virus growth by NNRTIs occurred during the early steps of the virus life-cycle and was modulated by the RT backbone sequence in which the resistance mutations arose. We wanted to determine what effects RT backbone sequence would have on RT content and polymerization and RNase H activities in the absence of NNRTIs. We compared a NL4-3 RT with K101E+G190S to a patient isolate RT sequence D10 with K101E+G190S. We show here that, unlike the NL4-3 backbone, the D10 backbone sequence decreased the RNA-dependent DNA polymerization activity of purified recombinant RT compared to wild type. In contrast, RTs with the D10 backbone had increased RNase H activity compared to wild type and K101E+G190S in the NL4-3 backbone. D10 virions also had increased amounts of RT compared to K101E+G190S in the NL4-3 backbone. We conclude that the backbone sequence of RT can alter the activities of the NNRTI drug resistant mutant, K101E+G190S and that identification of the amino acids responsible will aid in understanding the mechanism by which NNRTI drug resistant mutants alter fitness and NNRTIs stimulate HIV-1 virus replication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We built a cohort study of HIV patients taking long-term first-line Antiretroviral Therapy in 2003. In this assay, we focused on the development of primary drug resistance mutations against Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), K103N, Y181C and G190A.
The cohort study was built in Henan province, China. We used Single Genome Amplification (SGA) to analyze the frequency of K103N, Y181C and G190A in serial plasma samples of three individual patients. We also performed standard genotype HIV drug resistance assay in 204 patients of this cohort study to analyze the frequency of these mutations.
In the SGA sequences, the K103N decreased and vanished, while the frequency of Y181C and G190A increased in individual patient receiving long-term Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). In the sequences of standard genotype HIV drug resistance assay, the frequency of K103N, Y181C and G190A had the similar pattern with that in SGA sequences. Among these patients, the viral suppression were still sufficient after receiving ART for 72 months, and 78.6% (160/204) patients could have their CD4 count over than 200cells/ul.
In some patients, first-line ART had the possibility to provide sufficient treatment effect for over than 72 months, but in long-term treatment, the dominant NNRTI drug resistance mutation K103N could reduced, while the proportion of variants with mutation Y181C or G190A may increased. This result was not similar with that in vitro study, which state that variant with K103N or Y181C had an equal viral fitness with wild type.
AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2014; 11(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-36 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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Vytautas Gapsys, Raghavendran L Narayanan, ShengQi Xiang, Bert L de Groot, Markus Zweckstetter
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