Microbial communities in acid mine drainage and their interaction with pyrite surface.
ABSTRACT Microbes such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans have been investigated a lot, because of their important role in acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. In this article, the composition of microbial communities in two AMD samples was studied. A culture-independent 16S rDNA-based cloning approach, restriction fragment length polymorphism has been used. The interaction between microbes and natural pyrite specimen surface was researched by scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The phylogenetic analysis revealed bacteria in these two samples fell into three major groups: Proteobacteria, Nitrospira, and Firmicutes. Archaea was also detected in these two samples. Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma lineages were abundant. From SEM and FISH, a number of A. ferrooxidans, a few cells of Archaea and Acidiphilium were detected adsorbed on the pyrite specimen surface. Leptospirillum sp. (hybridize with the probe LF655) has not been detected to be present on the pyrite specimen surface.
Article: GeoChip-based analysis of the functional gene diversity and metabolic potential of microbial communities in acid mine drainage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an extreme environment, usually with low pH and high concentrations of metals. Although the phylogenetic diversity of AMD microbial communities has been examined extensively, little is known about their functional gene diversity and metabolic potential. In this study, a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 2.0) was used to analyze the functional diversity, composition, structure, and metabolic potential of AMD microbial communities from three copper mines in China. GeoChip data indicated that these microbial communities were functionally diverse as measured by the number of genes detected, gene overlapping, unique genes, and various diversity indices. Almost all key functional gene categories targeted by GeoChip 2.0 were detected in the AMD microbial communities, including carbon fixation, carbon degradation, methane generation, nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, nitrogen reduction, sulfur metabolism, metal resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, which suggested that the functional gene diversity was higher than was previously thought. Mantel test results indicated that AMD microbial communities are shaped largely by surrounding environmental factors (e.g., S, Mg, and Cu). Functional genes (e.g., narG and norB) and several key functional processes (e.g., methane generation, ammonification, denitrification, sulfite reduction, and organic contaminant degradation) were significantly (P < 0.10) correlated with environmental variables. This study presents an overview of functional gene diversity and the structure of AMD microbial communities and also provides insights into our understanding of metabolic potential in AMD ecosystems.Applied and environmental microbiology 02/2011; 77(3):991-9. · 3.69 Impact Factor