Some methodological issues in studying the long-term renal sequelae of acute kidney injury.
ABSTRACT There has been great interest recently in better understanding how an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) affects risk of development or acceleration of chronic kidney disease. This area of epidemiology research presents several methodological challenges that have not been sufficiently discussed in the literature. These are related to the current consensus definitions of AKI; the determination of 'baseline' renal function before the AKI episode; and the possibility that observed associations between AKI and future adverse events are confounded by differences in the severity of baseline chronic kidney disease. In this study, we discuss several potential solutions to these problems. Concerted efforts to address these methodological issues will propel research in this field to a higher level.
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ABSTRACT: The optimal timing for starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. Defining current practice is necessary to design interventional trials. We describe the current Canadian practice regarding the timing of RRT initiation for AKI. An observational study of patients undergoing RRT for AKI was undertaken at 11 intensive care units (ICUs) across Canada. Data were captured on demographics, clinical and laboratory findings, indications for RRT, and timing of RRT initiation. Among 119 consecutive patients, the most common ICU admission diagnosis was sepsis/septic shock, occurring in 54%. At the time of RRT initiation, the median and interquartile range (IQR) serum creatinine level was 322 (221-432) μmol·L(-1). The mean (SD) values for other parameters were as follows: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score 13.4 (4.1), pH 7.25 (0.15), potassium 4.6 (1.0) mmol·L(-1). Also, 64% fulfilled the serum creatinine-based criterion for Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage 3. Severity of illness, measured using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and SOFA scores, did not correlate with AKI severity as defined by the serum creatinine-based AKIN criteria. Median (IQR) time from hospital and ICU admission to the start of RRT was 2.0 (1.0-7.0) days and 1.0 (0-2.0) day, respectively. Patients admitted to an ICU who were started on RRT generally had advanced AKI, high-grade illness severity, and multiorgan dysfunction. Also, they were started on RRT shortly after hospital presentation. We describe the current state of practice in Canada regarding the initiation of RRT for AKI in critically ill patients, which can inform the designs of future interventional trials.Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal 06/2012; 59(9):861-70. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains one of the most potent predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI); however, recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a complex interplay between these two clinical entities. A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship: AKI leads to CKD, and the presence of CKD increases the risk of AKI. Additionally, several studies suggest that the presence of underlying CKD does modify the relation between AKI and adverse outcomes. In this article, we will review recent studies supporting the hypothesis that AKI leads to CKD and will explore the role of CKD as an effect modifier for AKI. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent meta-analysis confirms the association between AKI and the development of CKD and end-stage renal disease. Patient survival and renal outcomes after AKI are influenced by the presence of underlying CKD. AKI survivors with complete recovery of renal function remain at elevated risk of developing de-novo CKD, which may influence long-term survival; however, recovery of kidney function after AKI is associated with better long-term survival and renal function. SUMMARY: Recent findings support a strong association between AKI and CKD. There is uncertainty as to whether this relationship is causal. CKD is an effect modifier in AKI.Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 03/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
- Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor