Article

Childhood Soy Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Asian American Women

National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 05/2009; 18(4):1050-9. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0405
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Historically, breast cancer incidence has been substantially higher in the United States than in Asia. When Asian women migrate to the United States, their breast cancer risk increases over several generations and approaches that for U.S. Whites. Thus, modifiable factors, such as diet, may be responsible.
In this population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino descent, ages 20 to 55 years, and living in San Francisco-Oakland (California), Los Angeles (California) and Oahu (Hawaii), we interviewed 597 cases (70% of those eligible) and 966 controls (75%) about adolescent and adult diet and cultural practices. For subjects with mothers living in the United States (39% of participants), we interviewed mothers of 99 cases (43% of eligible) and 156 controls (40%) about the daughter's childhood exposures. Seventy-three percent of study participants were premenopausal at diagnosis.
Comparing highest with lowest tertiles, the multivariate relative risks (95% confidence interval) for childhood, adolescent, and adult soy intake were 0.40 (0.18-0.83; P(trend) = 0.03), 0.80 (0.59-1.08; P(trend) = 0.12), and 0.76 (0.56-1.02; P(trend) = 0.04), respectively. Inverse associations with childhood intake were noted in all three races, all three study sites, and women born in Asia and the United States. Adjustment for measures of westernization attenuated the associations with adolescent and adult soy intake but did not affect the inverse relationship with childhood soy intake.
Soy intake during childhood, adolescence, and adult life was associated with decreased breast cancer risk, with the strongest, most consistent effect for childhood intake. Soy may be a hormonally related, early-life exposure that influences breast cancer incidence.

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    • "Narrative review of soya infant formulas; includes studies considered in this review Pedrosa, 2006 (79) Analysis of palatability of soya and other infant formulas D'Auria, 2006 (80) Letter to editor related to paper by Seppo on the impact of soya formulas on growth Osbron, 2006 (81) Systematic review of the efficacy of soya in preventing allergy Ostrom, 2006 (82) RCT on soya infant formula efficacy for regurgitation treatment Ballmer-Weber, 2007 (83) Clinical characteristics of allergy to soya Fortres, 2007 (84) Portuguese paper on phyto-oestrogen intake and thelarche Halm, 2007 (85) Comparison of phyto-oestrogen levels in urine between children and adults eating soya nuts Turck, 2007 (86) Narrative review of indications of soya and safety issues Song, 2007 (87) Narrative review of the positive and negative effects of soya; studies on soya formula already considered Agostoni, 2007 (88) Effects of soya on weight/age and length/age in children aged 6– 12 months; does not include reports on the basal and final measurements of weight-only and height-only differences Wolff, 2008 (89) Cohort study related to puberty in girls analysing exposure to soya, but not to a soya infant formula Zuidmeer, 2008 (90) Prevalence of plant allergies, including allergy to soya, across countries; no safety parameters on infant formulas reported Johnson, 2008 (91) Narrative review of some articles that describe safety issues regarding soya infant formulas, already considered in this review Ngamphaiboon, 2008 (92) Description of CMPA in Thai children Mehr, 2008 (93) Food choices for CMPA; no safety parameters on soya analysed Boucher, 2008 (94) Epidemiological study of the early intake of soya and protective effect against breast cancer Kemp, 2008 (95) Consensus about the best treatment for CMPA; no safety parameters on soya analysed Bernbaum, 2008 (96) Pilot study to evaluate the validity of different techniques to measure breast bud, testicular volume and breast adipose tissue in children; no correlationship study between soya intake and maturation abnormalities Koplin, 2008 (97) Use of soya and allergy to peanuts; no other safety parameters analysed Caminiti, 2009 (98) Analysis of cross-reaction to soya; no other safety parameters analysed Antunes, 2009 (99) Analysis of allergy to soya and extensively hydrolysed formulas; no other safety parameters reported Badger, 2009 (100) Narrative review of some basic and clinical studies of the effects of soya on health; includes some papers considered in this review Lee, 2009 (101) Epidemiological study of the intake of soya during adolescence and protective effect against breast cancer Korde, 2009 (102) Epidemiological study of the early intake of soya and protective effect against breast cancer Guest, 2009 (103) Health economics model of treatment for CMPA; safety parameters on soya not evaluated Palmer, 2009 (104) Urogenital effects of in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol in males; does not include studies on infant formulas Cederroth, 2009 (105) Effects of soya on male reproductive function; animal studies; does not include paediatric studies on soya infant formulas Vandenplas, 2011 (106) Narrative review on the safety of soya infant formulas; some papers cited are analysed in this review Dias, 2010 (107) Persistence of CMPA and use of different infant formulas; no safety parameters on soya reported Bolca, 2010 (108) Soya isoflavones in breast tissue of women under breast resection Cheng, 2010 (109) Cohort study of soya ingestion during adolescence; not related to infant formulas Terracciano, 2010 (110) Analysis of soya allergy; no other safety parameters reported Tillet, 2010 (111) Informative letter of toxicology classification Nacmias, 2010 (112) Paper related to allergy to soya in neonates; no other safety parameters reported Sladkevicius, 2010 (113) Health economics analysis of soya use Katz, 2010 (114) Paper related to allergy to soya; no other safety parameters reported Patisaul, 2010 (115) Narrative description of biochemical, basic, clinical and epidemiological studies of soya; includes analysis of papers related to soya infant formulas, already considered in this review Donovan, 2010 (116) Description of soya effects on intestinal cell proliferation and antirotavirus effect; no safety parameters on soya reported Dinsdale, 2010 (117) Narrative review focused on animal and human studies on potential soya toxicity; non-systematic analysis concludes that there is no evidence of soya infant formula toxicity in children Wada, 2011 (118) Cross-sectional study of the correlationship between soya in diet and urinary level of sex hormones in boys/girls aged 4 –6 years; no history about soya infant formulas is recorded McCarver, 2011 (119) Exhaustive narrative review focused on animal and human studies; non-systematic analysis concludes that there is no evidence of soya infant formula toxicity in children Kim, 2011 (120) Case – control study in 7–10·2-year-old girls to establish a correlationship between isoflavones in serum and precocious puberty; no diet history analysed; does not include a discussion on soya infant formulas Kattan, 2011 (121) Narrative review of soya allergy; no safety parameters on soya reported Dabeka, 2011 (122) Comparative analysis of aluminium in different food products for children; no safety parameters reported Degen, 2011 (123) Measurements of isoflavones in urine of 6–18-year-old children; no history about soya infant formulas reported Nguyen, 2011 (124) US measurements of different organs in children fed soya, cows' milk or HM; no mathematical data reported; only graphs and P values reported Jefferson, 2011 (125) Narrative review of basic, clinical and epidemiological studies of the effects of soya in animal models and human subjects; describes some important papers included in this review Durham, 2011 (126) Analysis of food allergy; no safety parameters on soya reported Levi, 2012 (127) Utility of atopy patch in atopic dermatitis; no safety parameters on soya reported Jefferson, 2012 (128) Narrative review of basic, clinical and epidemiological studies of the effects of soya in animal models and human subjects; describes some important papers included in this review Blom, 2012 (129) Analysis of allergy to soya; no other safety parameters reported Crinella, 2012 (130) Narrative review of different hypotheses related to ADHD, with focus on manganese toxicity; brief description of possible association of soya, manganese and ADHD CMPA, cows' milk protein allergy; RCT, randomised controlled trial; HM, human milk; ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM.
    The British journal of nutrition 02/2014; 111(8):1-21. DOI:10.1017/S0007114513003942 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Narrative review of soya infant formulas; includes studies considered in this review Pedrosa, 2006 (79) Analysis of palatability of soya and other infant formulas D'Auria, 2006 (80) Letter to editor related to paper by Seppo on the impact of soya formulas on growth Osbron, 2006 (81) Systematic review of the efficacy of soya in preventing allergy Ostrom, 2006 (82) RCT on soya infant formula efficacy for regurgitation treatment Ballmer-Weber, 2007 (83) Clinical characteristics of allergy to soya Fortres, 2007 (84) Portuguese paper on phyto-oestrogen intake and thelarche Halm, 2007 (85) Comparison of phyto-oestrogen levels in urine between children and adults eating soya nuts Turck, 2007 (86) Narrative review of indications of soya and safety issues Song, 2007 (87) Narrative review of the positive and negative effects of soya; studies on soya formula already considered Agostoni, 2007 (88) Effects of soya on weight/age and length/age in children aged 6– 12 months; does not include reports on the basal and final measurements of weight-only and height-only differences Wolff, 2008 (89) Cohort study related to puberty in girls analysing exposure to soya, but not to a soya infant formula Zuidmeer, 2008 (90) Prevalence of plant allergies, including allergy to soya, across countries; no safety parameters on infant formulas reported Johnson, 2008 (91) Narrative review of some articles that describe safety issues regarding soya infant formulas, already considered in this review Ngamphaiboon, 2008 (92) Description of CMPA in Thai children Mehr, 2008 (93) Food choices for CMPA; no safety parameters on soya analysed Boucher, 2008 (94) Epidemiological study of the early intake of soya and protective effect against breast cancer Kemp, 2008 (95) Consensus about the best treatment for CMPA; no safety parameters on soya analysed Bernbaum, 2008 (96) Pilot study to evaluate the validity of different techniques to measure breast bud, testicular volume and breast adipose tissue in children; no correlationship study between soya intake and maturation abnormalities Koplin, 2008 (97) Use of soya and allergy to peanuts; no other safety parameters analysed Caminiti, 2009 (98) Analysis of cross-reaction to soya; no other safety parameters analysed Antunes, 2009 (99) Analysis of allergy to soya and extensively hydrolysed formulas; no other safety parameters reported Badger, 2009 (100) Narrative review of some basic and clinical studies of the effects of soya on health; includes some papers considered in this review Lee, 2009 (101) Epidemiological study of the intake of soya during adolescence and protective effect against breast cancer Korde, 2009 (102) Epidemiological study of the early intake of soya and protective effect against breast cancer Guest, 2009 (103) Health economics model of treatment for CMPA; safety parameters on soya not evaluated Palmer, 2009 (104) Urogenital effects of in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol in males; does not include studies on infant formulas Cederroth, 2009 (105) Effects of soya on male reproductive function; animal studies; does not include paediatric studies on soya infant formulas Vandenplas, 2011 (106) Narrative review on the safety of soya infant formulas; some papers cited are analysed in this review Dias, 2010 (107) Persistence of CMPA and use of different infant formulas; no safety parameters on soya reported Bolca, 2010 (108) Soya isoflavones in breast tissue of women under breast resection Cheng, 2010 (109) Cohort study of soya ingestion during adolescence; not related to infant formulas Terracciano, 2010 (110) Analysis of soya allergy; no other safety parameters reported Tillet, 2010 (111) Informative letter of toxicology classification Nacmias, 2010 (112) Paper related to allergy to soya in neonates; no other safety parameters reported Sladkevicius, 2010 (113) Health economics analysis of soya use Katz, 2010 (114) Paper related to allergy to soya; no other safety parameters reported Patisaul, 2010 (115) Narrative description of biochemical, basic, clinical and epidemiological studies of soya; includes analysis of papers related to soya infant formulas, already considered in this review Donovan, 2010 (116) Description of soya effects on intestinal cell proliferation and antirotavirus effect; no safety parameters on soya reported Dinsdale, 2010 (117) Narrative review focused on animal and human studies on potential soya toxicity; non-systematic analysis concludes that there is no evidence of soya infant formula toxicity in children Wada, 2011 (118) Cross-sectional study of the correlationship between soya in diet and urinary level of sex hormones in boys/girls aged 4 –6 years; no history about soya infant formulas is recorded McCarver, 2011 (119) Exhaustive narrative review focused on animal and human studies; non-systematic analysis concludes that there is no evidence of soya infant formula toxicity in children Kim, 2011 (120) Case – control study in 7–10·2-year-old girls to establish a correlationship between isoflavones in serum and precocious puberty; no diet history analysed; does not include a discussion on soya infant formulas Kattan, 2011 (121) Narrative review of soya allergy; no safety parameters on soya reported Dabeka, 2011 (122) Comparative analysis of aluminium in different food products for children; no safety parameters reported Degen, 2011 (123) Measurements of isoflavones in urine of 6–18-year-old children; no history about soya infant formulas reported Nguyen, 2011 (124) US measurements of different organs in children fed soya, cows' milk or HM; no mathematical data reported; only graphs and P values reported Jefferson, 2011 (125) Narrative review of basic, clinical and epidemiological studies of the effects of soya in animal models and human subjects; describes some important papers included in this review Durham, 2011 (126) Analysis of food allergy; no safety parameters on soya reported Levi, 2012 (127) Utility of atopy patch in atopic dermatitis; no safety parameters on soya reported Jefferson, 2012 (128) Narrative review of basic, clinical and epidemiological studies of the effects of soya in animal models and human subjects; describes some important papers included in this review Blom, 2012 (129) Analysis of allergy to soya; no other safety parameters reported Crinella, 2012 (130) Narrative review of different hypotheses related to ADHD, with focus on manganese toxicity; brief description of possible association of soya, manganese and ADHD CMPA, cows' milk protein allergy; RCT, randomised controlled trial; HM, human milk; ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions. The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF compared with those fed other types of infant formulas and that measured safety. The databases that were searched included PubMed (1909 to July 2013), Embase (1988 to May 2013), LILACS (1990 to May 2011), ARTEMISA (13th edition, December 2012), Cochrane controlled trials register, Bandolier and DARE using the Cochrane methodology. Wherever possible, a meta-analysis was carried out. We found that the anthropometric patterns of children fed SIF were similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. Despite the high levels of phytates and aluminium in SIF, Hb, serum protein, Zn and Ca concentrations and bone mineral content were found to be similar to those of children fed CMF or HM. We also found the levels of genistein and daidzein to be higher in children fed SIF; however, we did not find strong evidence of a negative effect on reproductive and endocrine functions. Immune measurements and neurocognitive parameters were similar in all the feeding groups. In conclusion, modern SIF are evidence-based safety options to feed children requiring them. The patterns of growth, bone health and metabolic, reproductive, endocrine, immune and neurological functions are similar to those observed in children fed CMF or HM.
    British Journal Of Nutrition 02/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Another potential exposure is alcohol; in a review of dietary factors and breast cancer, alcohol was the only consistent factor associated with increased risk [97], perhaps mediated through the association of alcohol with increased breast density. Although the literature is somewhat inconsistent, soy intake may be beneficial, with some studies citing intake during childhood [98] or during adulthood [99]. Physical activity levels may also be protective, and a case-control study noted that physical activity at ages 14 to 20 years decreased risk of breast cancer [100]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early life exposures during times of rapid growth and development are recognized increasingly to impact later life. Epidemiologic studies document an association between exposures at critical windows of susceptibility with outcomes as diverse as childhood and adult obesity, timing of menarche, and risk for hypertension or breast cancer. This article briefly reviews the concept of windows of susceptibility for providers who care for adolescent patients. The theoretical bases for windows of susceptibility is examined, evaluating the relationship between pubertal change and breast cancer as a paradigm, and reviewing the underlying mechanisms, such as epigenetic modification. The long-term sequela of responses to early exposures may impact other adult morbidities; addressing these exposures represents an important challenge for contemporary medicine.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2013; 52(5 Suppl):S15-20. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.019 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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