The MCM2-7 (minichromosome maintenance) proteins are a family of evolutionarily highly conserved proteins. They are essential for DNA replication in yeast and are considered to function as DNA helicases. However, it has long been shown that there is an overabundance of the MCM2-7 proteins when compared with the number of DNA replication origins in chromatin. It has been suggested that the MCM2-7 proteins may function in other biological processes that require the unwinding of the DNA helix. In this report, we show that RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription is dependent on MCM5 and MCM2 proteins. Furthermore, the MCM2-7 proteins are co-localized with RNA Pol II on chromatins of constitutively transcribing genes, and MCM5 is required for transcription elongation of RNA Pol II. Finally, we demonstrate that the integrity of the MCM2-7 hexamer complex and the DNA helicase domain in MCM5 are essential for the process of transcription.
"MCM5 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 5) at 22q13.1 encodes for a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins that stimulates cell transition from G0 to G1/S phase of the cell cycle and actively participates in cell cycle regulation [22,23]. Data from clinical and preclinical models of skin, esophageal, bladder and gastrointestinal carcinomas further confirm the proliferative, migratory and cell cycle activating properties of the MCM5 protein [24-27]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab, an antibody neutralizing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), is licensed for the management of patients with advanced colon cancer. However, tumor biomarkers identifying the molecular tumor subsets most amenable to angiogenesis modulation are lacking.
We profiled expession of 24526 genes by means of whole genome 24 K DASL (c-DNA-mediated, Annealing, Selection and Ligation) arrays, (Illumina, CA) in 16 bevacizumab-treated patients with advanced colon cancer (Test set). Genes with correlation to 8-month Progression-free status were studied by means of qPCR in two independent colon cancer cohorts: 49 patients treated with bevacizumab + chemotherapy (Bevacizumab qPCR set) and 72 patients treated with chemotherapy only (Control qPCR set). Endpoints were best tumor response before metastasectomy (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS).
Five genes were significantly correlated to 8-month progression-free status in the Test set: overexpression of KLF12 and downregulation of AGR2, ALDH6A1, MCM5, TFF2. In the two independent datasets, irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was administered as first-line treatment and metastasectomies were subsequently applied in 8-14% of patients. No prognostically significant gene classifier encompassing all five genes could be validated in the Bevacizumab or Control qPCR sets. The complex gene expression profile of all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) was strongly associated with ORR in the Bevacizumab qPCR set (ORR 85.7%, p = 0.007), but not in the Control set (ORR 36.4%, p = 0.747). The Odds Ratio for response for the all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) profile versus any other ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5 profile was 15 (p = 0.018) in the Bevacizumab qPCR set but only 0.72 (p = 0.63) in the Control set. The tumor expression profile of (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) was significantly associated with PFS only in the Bevacizumab qPCR set: bevacizumab-treated patients with (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) tumors had superior PFS (median 14 months, 95% CI 2-21) compared to patients with any other (KLF12 + TFF2) expression profile (median PFS 7 months, 95% CI 5-10, p = 0.021). The Hazard Ratio for disease progression for (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) versus any other KLF12 + TFF2 expression profile was 2.92 (p = 0.03) in the Validation and 1.29 (p = 0.39) in the Control set.
Our «three-stage» hypothesis-generating study failed to validate the prognostic significance of a five-gene classifier in mCRC patients. Exploratory analyses suggest two gene signatures that are potentially associated with bevazicumab benefit in patients with advanced colon cancer.
BMC Cancer 02/2014; 14(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-111 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"E2F-1 and Rb protein, both of which regulate the expression of genes necessary for cell cycle progression and DNA replication , , also function at replication origins to limit DNA replication by interacting with proteins of the ORC, not by acting as transcription factors , . Conversely, proteins involved in the assembly of pre-RC, viz., Mcm proteins 2–7, colocalize with RNA polymerase II on actively transcribing genes and are required for transcription elongation . These interactions between transcription factors and proteins involved in the assembly of pre-RC may facilitate the orderly replication of transcriptionally active regions of genomic DNA in S phase. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. However, its mechanism of action in proliferation remains unknown. An understanding of the mechanism of AR action in proliferation may lead to the development of effective strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer.
In this study we report that pulse treatment of synchronized LNCaP cells with Casodex, an AR-antagonist, for 4 hours in mid-G(1) phase was sufficient to prevent cells from entering S phase. Since the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) in G(1) is required for the progression of cells from G(1) to S phase, the effect of Casodex during mid-G(1) suggested that the role of AR in proliferation might be to regulate the assembly of pre-RC. To test this possibility, we investigated the interaction between AR and Cdc6, an essential component of pre-RC in LNCaP cells. AR co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with Cdc6, and Casodex treatment disrupted this interaction. AR-immunoprecipitate (AR-IP) also contained cyclin E and cyclin A, which play a critical role in pre-RC assembly and cell cycle entry into S phase, and DNA polymerase-α, PCNA, and ribonucleotide reductase, which are essential for the initiation of DNA synthesis. In addition, in cells in S phase, AR co-sedimented with components of the DNA replication machinery of cells that entered S phase.
Together, these observations suggest a novel role of AR as a component of the pre-RC to exert control over progression of LNCaP cells from G(1) to S phase through a mechanism that is independent of its role as a transcription factor.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e56692. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056692 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Recent studies reported other replication proteins associated with protein-coding genes (Azvolinsky et al., 2009; Shor et al., 2009; Snyder et al., 2009), and some have argued this is a result of replisome pausing at sites of heavy transcription. However, we find RPA associating with transcription units even in G1 arrested cells (Figure S4B), indicating that the interaction with transcribed loci is replication independent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins play many roles in nucleic acid metabolism, but their importance during transcription remains unclear. Quantitative proteomic analysis of RNA polymerase II (RNApII) preinitiation complexes (PICs) identified Sub1 and the replication protein A complex (RPA), both of which bind single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Sub1, homolog of mammalian coactivator PC4, exhibits strong genetic interactions with factors necessary for promoter melting. Sub1 localizes near the transcription bubble in vitro and binds to promoters in vivo dependent upon PIC assembly. In contrast, RPA localizes to transcribed regions of active genes, strongly correlated with transcribing RNApII but independently of replication. RFA1 interacts genetically with transcription elongation factor genes. Interestingly, RPA levels increase at active promoters in cells carrying a Sub1 deletion or ssDNA-binding mutant, suggesting competition for a common binding site. We propose that Sub1 and RPA interact with the nontemplate strand of RNApII complexes during initiation and elongation, respectively.
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