The respiratory health of swimmers.
ABSTRACT Regular physical activity is recognized as an effective health promotion measure. Among various activities, swimming is preferred by a large portion of the population. Although swimming is generally beneficial to a person's overall health, recent data suggest that it may also sometimes have detrimental effects on the respiratory system. Chemicals resulting from the interaction between chlorine and organic matter may be irritating to the respiratory tract and induce upper and lower respiratory symptoms, particularly in children, lifeguards and high-level swimmers. The prevalence of atopy, rhinitis, asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is increased in elite swimmers compared with the general population. This may be related to the airway epithelial damage and increased nasal and lung permeability caused by the exposure to chlorine subproducts in indoor swimming pools, in association with airway inflammatory and remodelling processes. Currently, the recommended management of swimmers' respiratory disorders is similar to that of the general population, apart from the specific rules for the use of medications in elite athletes. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the development or worsening of respiratory disorders in recreational or competitive swimmers, to determine how we can optimize treatment and possibly help prevent the development of asthma.
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ABSTRACT: Airway dysfunction is prevalent in elite endurance athletes and when left untreated may impact upon both health and performance. There is now concern that the intensity of hyperpnoea necessitated by exercise at an elite level may be detrimental for an athlete's respiratory health. This article addresses the evidence of causality in this context with the aim of specifically addressing whether airway dysfunction in elite athletes should be classified as an occupational lung disease. The approach used highlights a number of concerns and facilitates recommendations to ensure airway health is maintained and optimized in this population. We conclude that elite athletes should receive the same considerations for their airway health as others with potential and relevant occupational exposures.Allergy 10/2013; 68(11). DOI:10.1111/all.12265 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Presentazione :Dopo la pubblicazione dei Protocolli cardiologici, dei Protocolli allergologici e immunologici e delle Linee Guida per la concessione dell'idoneità all'attività sportiva, continua l'impegno della Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana in qualità di Società scientifica a favore della formazione e dell'aggiornamento professionale dei suoi Tesserati. Questo lavoro, nato dalla collaborazione scientifica della Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana (FMSI) con la Società Italiana di Pneumologia dello Sport (SIP Sport), focalizza i rapporti tra patologie dell'apparato respiratorio e attività sportive ed è indirizzata a tutti i medici ed in modo particolare agli specialisti in Medicina dello Sport e agli specialisti in Pneumologia. A seguito dell'esposizione dell'iter valutativo pneumologico, vengono presi in considerazione i quadri morbosi di più frequente riscontro come ad esempio l'asma bronchiale,le infezioni respiratorie, la sindrome delle apnee ostruttive durante il sonno, il pneumotorace, i traumi del torace. Di particolare interesse medico sportivo sono le problematiche dell'apparato respiratorio legate allo sport in montagna ed alle attività subacquee. Per ogni processo patologico sono descritti i criteri di valutazione ed il grado di compatibilità con l'attività sportiva.E' con grande soddisfazione che la Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana presenta un supplemento alla Rivista Federale con la certezza di fare cosa gradita e soprattutto utile per lo svolgimento della sua attività professionale. Annalisa Cogo Presidente Società Italiana di Pneumologia dello Sport e Maurizio Casasco Presidente Federazione Medico Sportiva ItalianaMedicina dello sport; rivista di fisiopatologia dello sport 06/2010; 63(supp 1 n 2):1-97. · 0.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the sport of triathlon provides an opportunity to research the effect of multi-disciplinary exercise on health across the lifespan, much remains to be done. The literature has failed to consistently or adequately report subject age group, sex, ability level, and/or event-distance specialization. The demands of training and racing are relatively unquantified. Multiple definitions and reporting methods for injury and illness have been implemented. In general, risk factors for maladaptation have not been well-described. The data thus far collected indicate that the sport of triathlon is relatively safe for the well-prepared, well-supplied athlete. Most injuries ‘causing cessation or reduction of training or seeking of medical aid’ are not serious. However, as the extent to which they recur may be high and is undocumented, injury outcome is unclear. The sudden death rate for competition is 1.5 (0.9–2.5) [mostly swim-related] occurrences for every 100,000 participations. The sudden death rate is unknown for training, although stroke risk may be increased, in the long-term, in genetically susceptible athletes. During heavy training and up to 5 days post-competition, host protection against pathogens may also be compromised. The incidence of illness seems low, but its outcome is unclear. More prospective investigation of the immunological, oxidative stress-related and cardiovascular effects of triathlon training and competition is warranted. Training diaries may prove to be a promising method of monitoring negative adaptation and its potential risk factors. More longitudinal, medical-tent-based studies of the aetiology and treatment demands of race-related injury and illness are needed.Sports Medicine 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0244-0 · 5.32 Impact Factor