Development of a Nitric Oxide-Releasing Analogue of the Muscle Relaxant Guaifenesin for Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Myogenesis
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) mediates activation of satellite precursor cells to enter the cell cycle. This provides new precursor cells for skeletal muscle growth and muscle repair from injury or disease. Targeting a new drug that specifically delivers NO to muscle has the potential to promote normal function and treat neuromuscular disease, and would also help to avoid side effects of NO from other treatment modalities. In this research, we examined the effectiveness of the NO donor, iosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and a muscle relaxant, methocarbamol, in promoting satellite cell activation assayed by muscle cell DNA synthesis in normal adult mice. The work led to the development of guaifenesin dinitrate (GDN) as a new NO donor for delivering nitric oxide to muscle. The results revealed that there was a strong increase in muscle satellite cell activation and proliferation, demonstrated by a significant 38% rise in DNA synthesis after a single transdermal treatment with the new compound for 24 h. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that the markers of satellite cell myogenesis, expression of myf5, myogenin, and follistatin, were increased after 24 h oral administration of the compound in adult mice. This research extends our understanding of the outcomes of NO-based treatments aimed at promoting muscle regeneration in normal tissue. The potential use of such treatment for conditions such as muscle atrophy in disuse and aging, and for the promotion of muscle tissue repair as required after injury or in neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, is highlighted.
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ABSTRACT: Acute skeletal muscle damage results in fiber disruption, oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated cell-specific contributions to the regeneration process after contusion-induced damage (rat gastrocnemius muscle) with or without chronic grape seed-derived proanthocyanidolic oligomer (PCO) administration. In this placebo-controlled study, male Wistar rats were subjected to PCO administration for 2 weeks, after which they were subjected to a standardised contusion injury. Supplementation was continued after injury. Immune and satellite cell responses were assessed, as well as oxygen radical absorption capacity and muscle regeneration. PCO administration resulted in a rapid satellite cell response with an earlier peak in activation (Pax7(+), CD56(+), at 4 h post-contusion) vs. placebo groups (PLA) (P<.001: CD56(+) on Day 5 and Pax7(+) on Day 7). Specific immune-cell responses in PLA followed expected time courses (neutrophil elevation on Day 1; sustained macrophage elevation from Days 3 to 5). PCO dramatically decreased neutrophil elevation to nonsignificant, while macrophage responses were normal in extent, but significantly earlier (peak between Days 1 and 3) and completely resolved by Day 5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, increased significantly only in PCO (Day 3). Muscle fiber regeneration (MHC(f) content and central nuclei) started earlier and was complete by Day 14 in PCO, but not in PLA. Thus, responses by three crucial cell types involved in muscle recovery were affected by in vivo administration of a specific purified polyphenol in magnitude (neutrophil), time course (macrophages), or time course and activation state (satellite cell), explaining faster effective regeneration in the presence of proanthocyanidolic oligomers.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 11/2011; 23(9):1072-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.05.014 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current therapies for muscular dystrophy are based on corticosteroids. Significant side effects associated with these therapies have prompted several studies aimed at identifying possible alternative strategies. As inflammation and defects of nitric oxide (NO) generation are key pathogenic events in muscular dystrophies, we have studied the effects of combining the NO donor isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen. alpha-Sarcoglycan-null mice were treated for up to 8 months with ISDN (30 mg.kg(-1)) plus ibuprofen (50 mg.kg(-1)) administered daily in the diet. Effects of ISDN and ibuprofen alone were assessed in parallel. Drug effects on animal motility and muscle function, muscle damage, inflammatory infiltrates and cytokine levels, as well as muscle regeneration including assessment of endogenous stem cell pool, were measured at selected time points. Combination of ibuprofen and ISDN stimulated regeneration capacity, of myogenic precursor cells, reduced muscle necrotic damage and inflammation. Muscle function in terms of free voluntary movement and resistance to exercise was maintained throughout the time window analysed. The effects of ISDN and ibuprofen administered separately were transient and significantly lower than those induced by their combination. Co-administration of NO and ibuprofen provided synergistic beneficial effects in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy, leading to an effective therapy. Our results open the possibility of immediate clinical testing of a combination of ISDN and ibuprofen in dystrophic patients, as both components are approved for use in humans, with a good safety profile.British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2010; 160(6):1550-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00809.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In undamaged postnatal muscle fibers with normal contraction and relaxation activities, quiescent satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells are interposed between the overlying external lamina and the sarcolemma of a subjacent mature muscle fiber. When muscle is injured, exercised, overused or mechanically stretched, these cells are activated to enter the cell proliferation cycle, divide, differentiate, and fuse with the adjacent muscle fiber, and are responsible for regeneration and work-induced hypertrophy of muscle fibers. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to translate mechanical changes in muscle tissue into chemical signals that can activate satellite cells. Recent studies of satellite cells or single muscle fibers in culture and in vivo demonstrated the essential role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and nitric oxide (NO) radical in the activation pathway. These experiments have also reported that mechanically stretching satellite cells or living skeletal muscles triggers the activation by rapid release of HGF from its extracellular tethering and the subsequent presentation to the receptor c-met. HGF release has been shown to rely on calcium-calmodulin formation and NO radical production in satellite cells and/or muscle fibers in response to the mechanical perturbation, and depend on the subsequent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. These results indicate that the activation mechanism is a cascade of events including calcium ion influx, calcium-calmodulin formation, NO synthase activation, NO radical production, MMP activation, HGF release and binding to c-met. Better understanding of 'mechano-biology' on the satellite cell activation is essential for designing procedures that could enhance muscle growth and repair activities in meat-animal agriculture and also in neuromuscular disease and aging in humans.Animal Science Journal 02/2010; 81(1):11-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2009.00712.x · 1.04 Impact Factor