Prognostic importance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in gastric carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as switching of polarized epithelial cells to a migratory fibroblastoid phenotype. EMT is known to be involved in the progression and metastasis of various cancers. The aim was to evaluate the expression of EMT-related proteins in gastric carcinoma (GC).
The expression of nine EMT-related proteins in the GC tissues of 598 patients was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using a tissue array method. In addition, clinicopathological characteristics and survival were compared with the expression of EMT-related proteins. Loss of epithelial protein and/or acquisition of the expression of mesenchymal proteins were observed in GC. These protein alterations were associated with diffuse type histology, advanced stage and poor patient outcome, respectively. Subjects were divided into three groups according to degree of EMT-related protein alteration. Increases in alteration of EMT-related protein were found to be significantly associated with poorly differentiated histology, higher pTNM stage and unfavourable outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that alterations in the expression of EMT-related proteins were independently associated with poor prognosis.
Loss of epithelial proteins and/or the acquisition of mesenchymal proteins are associated with poorly differentiated histology, advanced stage and poor outcome in GC. The awareness and inhibition of EMT offer a promising target for prevention of metastatic progression and invasion.
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ABSTRACT: Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) expression correlates with tumor growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Here, we show that RhoGDI2 functions in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for invasiveness during tumor progression. This tumorigenic activity is associated with repression of E-cadherin by RhoGDI2 via upregulation of Snail. Overexpression of RhoGDI2 induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT in gastric cancer cells, including abnormal epithelial cell morphology, fibroblast-like properties, and reduced intercellular adhesion. RhoGDI2 overexpression also resulted in decreased expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and β-catenin and increased expression of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin. Importantly, RhoGDI2 overexpression also stimulated the expression of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of EMT, but not other family members such as Slug or Twist. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Snail expression suppressed RhoGDI2-induced EMT and invasion, confirming that the effect was Snail-specific. These results indicate that RhoGDI2 plays a critical role in tumor progression in gastric cancer through induction of EMT. Targeting RhoGDI2 may thus be a useful strategy to inhibit gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.Oncotarget 02/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of β-catenin immunohistochemical expression on the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC).World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 09/2014; 20(34):12313-21.
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ABSTRACT: We determined the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) indicator proteins, E-cadherin (E-cad), vimentin (VIM), mucin 1 (MUC1) and S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient tissue samples. We also investigated the relationship between the expression of these proteins and clinicopathologic factors in HCC. Finally, we assessed the potential value of these markers as prognostic indicators of survival in HCC patients. The expression of E-cad, VIM, MUC1 and S100A4 EMT indicator proteins was assessed in tissue microarray HCC tissue sections and corresponding peritumoral normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression for the four EMT indicator proteins was correlated with clinicopathological features of HCC and patient outcome. Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics and immunohistochemistry by χ(2) analysis revealed that downregulation of E-cad in HCC was significantly associated with later TNM cancer stage (P = 0.012), gross classification (P = 0.018), regional lymph node metastasis (P = 0.036) and liver cirrhosis (P = 0.028). Increased S100A4 expression in HCC was significantly associated with differentiation (P = 0.032), tumor with a complete fibrous capsule (P = 0.031) and portal vein invasion (P = 0.038). High VIM expression in HCC was significantly associated with high serum α-fetoprotein levels (P = 0.016). We also observed that low E-cad expression was significantly associated with overexpression of VIM (P = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis revealed that low E-cad expression (HR = 0.164, 95 % CI 0.072 to 0.373, P < 0.001) and high serum α-fetoprotein levels (HR = 2.202, 95 % CI 1.054 to 4.598, P = 0.036) were independent prognostic factors in HCC. Our study demonstrates that high S100A4 and VIM expression and low E-cad expression correlate with an aggressive, malignant phenotype in HCC. These results also support a role for E-cad as a prognostic factor in HCC.Medical Oncology 06/2014; 31(6):970. · 2.14 Impact Factor