The Dual Control Model: Current Status and Future Directions

The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University, USA.
The Journal of Sex Research (Impact Factor: 2.7). 04/2009; 46(2-3):121-42. DOI: 10.1080/00224490902747222
Source: PubMed


The Dual Control Model proposes that sexual responses involve an interaction between sexual excitatory and sexual inhibitory processes. The model further postulates that individuals vary in their propensity for both sexual excitation and sexual inhibition, and that such variations help us to understand much of the variability in human sexuality. The development of psychometrically validated instruments for measuring such propensities for men (Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales) and for women (Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women) is described. These measures show close to normal variability in both men and women, supporting the concept that "normal" levels of inhibition proneness are adaptive. The relevance of the model to sexual development, sexual desire, the effects of aging, sexual identity, and the relation between mood and sexuality are discussed, and the available evidence is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to gender differences and similarities in propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition. Research findings related to sexual problems, high-risk sexual behavior, and the relevance of this model to clinical management of such problems are also summarized. Last, ideas for future use and further development of the Dual Control Model are considered.

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Available from: Erick Janssen, Apr 30, 2014
    • "According to Janssen et al. (2000), studying unconscious processes is also important because aspects of the response to sexual cues take place at an automatic unconscious level. Scholars (e.g., Bancroft et al., 2009; Toates, 2009) have worked toward creating integrative models to account for the diverse findings related to the processing of sexual information. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1-3 demonstrated increases in adult's positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1-4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10508-015-0609-y · 3.53 Impact Factor
    • "It comprises one excitation factor (SES), and two inhibitory factors: SIS1, sexual inhibition due to fear of low performance (e.g., erectile failure), and SIS2, sexual inhibition due to fear of negative consequences of sexual activity (e.g., STDs, pregnancy). The SIS/SES has adequate reliability and validity (Bancroft et al., 2009). The factor structure of the female version, modeled after the male version, was comparable to the male version's structure and had acceptable psychometric characteristics (Carpenter, Janssen, Graham, Vorst, & Wicherts, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The theoretical proximity of the Dual-Control Model of the Sexual Response and the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts at least moderate-size correlations of measurements based on these models. However, sexual inhibition has also been claimed to be domain-specific, suggesting smaller-size correlations and superior prediction of sexual outcomes using measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, compared with generic measures. The aim of this study (N = 254) was to investigate the predictive validity of the Sexual Inhibition and Sexual Excitation Scale (SIS/SES) for, respectively, sexual and non-sexual risk behavior beyond prediction using scores on the Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation Scale (BIS/BAS). Both instruments, however, were found to contribute to the prediction of both types of risk behavior. The findings were interpreted as providing only partial support for the notion of domain specificity of sexual inhibition and excitation.
    Personality and Individual Differences 06/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.048 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    • "research has indicated that compared to men, women focus more on inhibitory processes while men focus on excitatory processes (Bancroft, Graham, Janssen, & Sanders, 2009). The dual control model posits that sexual behavior reflects a balance between sexual excitatory and inhibitory processes (Bancroft et al., 2009). Emotions are likely candidates that could exert excitatory or inhibitory influences on human sexual arousal, depending on emotional valence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.
    The Journal of Sex Research 09/2014; 52(9):1-10. DOI:10.1080/00224499.2014.948111 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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