Nitric oxide synthase isozymes in spinally projecting PVN neurons are involved in CRF-induced sympathetic activation.
ABSTRACT In the brain, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) has been shown to activate the sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow, but the central mechanisms of action are still not fully understood. Previously, we reported that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in central CRF-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines in rats. Nitric oxide is mainly synthesized by neuronal NOS (nNOS) and iNOS in many areas in the brain. Of these areas, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) contains neurons projecting to the intermediolateral cell column (IML) of the spinal cord, thereby directly affecting the sympathetic activity. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered CRF on plasma catecholamine levels and expression of NOS isozymes (iNOS and nNOS) and Fos (a marker for neuronal activation) in the spinally projecting PVN neurons, using rats microinjected with a monosynaptic retrograde tracer into the IML. CRF (1.5 nmol/animal, i.c.v.) effectively elevated plasma catecholamine levels. The spinally projecting neurons labeled with a tracer were detected in the dorsal cap, ventral part and posterior part of the PVN. CRF significantly increased the number of spinally projecting neurons triple-labeled with Fos and iNOS in all of these PVN subnuclei. On the other hand, CRF significantly increased the number of spinally projecting neurons triple-labeled with Fos and nNOS only in the ventral part of the PVN. These results suggest that in spinally projecting PVN neurons, iNOS mainly contributes to the centrally administered CRF-induced activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary outflow in rats.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the major cytokine involved in activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulates both central and peripheral components regulating HPA activity. The role of nitric oxide (NO) generated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in brain structures involved in HPA axis regulation has not been elucidated. The aim of the study was to assess the receptor selectivity of IL-1β stimulatory action on HPA axis and to determine the involvement of nNOS and iNOS in this stimulation. Methods: Experiments were performed on maleWistar rats which were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with IL-1β (5 μg/kg) or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) (50 μg/kg or 100 μg/kg) 15 min before IL-1β. Rats were sacrificed by rapid decapitation 1, 2 or 3 h after IL-1β administration. Trunk blood for ACTH, corticosterone and IL-1β determinations was collected and prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus were excised and snap frozen. Western blot analyses were performed and IL-1β, nNOS and iNOS protein were determined in brain structures samples. Results: IL-1β significantly increased plasma ACTH, corticosterone and IL-1β levels during 2 h after ip administration. IL-1 receptor antagonist was able to abolish the stimulatory effect of IL-1β on plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels and significantly, but not totally, reduced plasma IL-1β level. The role of NO in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus in the IL-1β-induced HPA axis activity alterations was determined by measuring the changes in nNOS and iNOS levels. The highest level of both izoenzymes 1 h following IL-1β administration decreased in a regular, parallel manner 2 and 3 h later, approaching control values. These changes were almost totally prevented by pretreatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist. In the hypothalamus the IL-1β-induced initial significant increase of nNOS regularly decreased in a modest rate and remained at significant higher level compared to control values. By contrast, iNOS level gradually increased 2 and 3 h after IL-1β administration in a significant time-dependent manner. The changes in both NOS izoenzyme levels in hypothalamus were suppressed by pretreatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist. Results also show that a regular and parallel decrease of nNOS in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex are parallel in time and magnitude to respective fall in plasma IL-1β and ACTH levels. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the IL-1β-induced transient stimulation of HPA axis activity is parallel in time and magnitude to the respective changes of nNOS in hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex, the brain structures involved in regulation of HPA axis activity.Pharmacological reports: PR 11/2012; 64(6):1455-65. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Restraint stress (RS) markedly increases interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) generation in brain structures involved in hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis regulation. The IL-1β-induced transient stimulation of HPA axis activity was parallel in time and magnitude to respective changes in regulation of HPA activity. In the present experiment the expression of neuron al and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and iNOS) were investigated in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus in response to acute restraint stress in control and prior repeatedly restrained rats. Methods: Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats which were exposed to 10 min restraint stress or restrained twice a day for 3 days, and 24 h after the last stress period exposed to homotypic stress for 10 min. After rapid decapitation at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after cessation of stress, trunk blood was collected and prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus were excised and frozen. Interleukin-1β, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) levels were determined in plasma using commercially available kits and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in brain structure samples were analyzed by western blot procedure. Results: Prior repeated restraint stress enhanced the acute restraint stress induced increase in IL-1β levels in all three structures examined. Restraint stress for 10 min moderately decreased nNOS level in prefrontal cortex in control rats, augmented this level in hippocampus and markedly increased nNOS level in hypothalamus. Restraint itself significantly decreased iNOS level in prefrontal cortex, while it enhanced iNOS level in hippocampus and hypothalamus. Prior restraint stress for 3 days enhanced the nNOS level in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and did not substantially affect nNOS levels response in hypothalamus. Repeated restraint stress considerably augmented the iNOS levels in both prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus induced by followed homotypic stress. Conclusion: These results indicate that during restraint stress nNOS regulate formation of low amount of NO and the high-output generation of NO is effected by inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase. Prior repeated stress significantly enhances the homotypic stress-induced nNOS and iNOS responses.Pharmacological reports: PR 11/2012; 64(6):1381-90. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is accepted as one of the fundamental biological mechanisms that underlie major depression. This hyperactivity is caused by diminished feedback inhibition of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced reduction of HPA axis signaling and increased corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and extra-hypothalamic neurons. During chronic stress-induced inhibition of systemic feedback, cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels were significantly changed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, both structures known to be deeply involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Cytokines secreted by both immune and non-immune cells can markedly affect neurotransmission within regulatory brain circuits related to the expression of emotions; cytokines may also induce hormonal changes similar to those observed following exposure to stress. Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are implicated in the etiologies of clinical depression and anxiety disorders. Prolonged stress responses and cytokines impair neuronal plasticity and stimulation of neurotransmission. Exposure to acute stress and IL-1β markedly increased IL-1β levels in the PFC, hippocampus and hypothalamus, as well as overall HPA axis activity. Repeated stress sensitized the HPA axis response to IL-1β. Inflammatory responses in the brain contribute to cellular damage associated with neuropsychiatric diseases related to stress. Physical, psychological or combined-stress conditions evoke a proinflammatory response in the brain and other systems, characterized by a complex release of several inflammatory mediators including cytokines, prostanoids, nitric oxide (NO) and transcription factors. Induced CRH release involves IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, for stimulation adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the anterior pituitary. NO also participates in signal transduction pathways that result in the release of corticosterone from the adrenal gland. NO participates in multiple interactions between neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems in physiological and pathological processes. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) modulates learning and memory and is involved in development of neuropsychiatric diseases, including depression. Nitric oxide generated in response to stress exposure is associated with depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors. In the central nervous system (CNS), prostaglandins (PG) generated by the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme are involved in the regulation of HPA axis activity. Prior exposure to chronic stress alters constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) cyclooxygenase responses to homotypic stress differently in the PFC, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Both PG and NO generated within the PVN participate in this modulation. Acute stress affects the functionality of COX/PG and NOS/NO systems in brain structures. The complex responses of central and peripheral pathways to acute and chronic stress involve cytokines, NO and PG systems that regulate and turn off responses that would be potentially harmful for cellular homeostasis and overall health.Pharmacological reports: PR 10/2013; 65(6):1655-1662. · 1.97 Impact Factor