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Degeneración macular relacionada con la edad. Estudio de 10 casos

Revista Cubana de Oftalmología 06/2005; 18(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains unknown. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to be associated with AMD. Although some studies have reported familial cases of AMD in the United States, as far as we know, familial cases of AMD have rarely been reported in Japan. We describe three families with two members of each family affected with AMD and one family with three affected members. In one family, two siblings were affected with AMD with choroidal neovascularization and two other siblings had retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities or drusen of the maculas, suggesting the heterogeneity of the maculas in the family. However, the other families did not show such heterogeneity of the fundus. Among the four families, six of nine affected individuals had a smoking habit, a risk factor for AMD. These findings suggest that the development and progression of AMD might be associated with genetic factors and environmental factors.
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of legal blindness in the developed countries in people older than 50 years of age. AMD complicated by choroidal neovascular membranes (CNV) accounts for 12% of AMD, but for 88% of legal blindness cases. Because of the progressive aging of the population, it is expected that AMD will be one of the greater public health problems in ophthalmology in the first half of the next century. Laser photocoagulation remains the only proven treatment for CNV in AMD, but unfortunately, is applicable only to a minority of patients presenting with CNV in AMD. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new experiment treatment for CNV that combines the application of low-intensity light with a photosensitizing agent in the presence of oxygen to produce tissue effects. It uses the noninvasive potential of the laser light to cause a nonthermal localized chemotoxic reaction and obtain highly selective occlusion of the neovascular channels, with sparing of the overlying photoreceptors. Animal studies showed that PDT accounts for the effective closure of experimentally induced CNV. Phase I-II clinical studies showed that PDT using BPD can safely stabilize leakage from CNV in a majority of patients for up to 3 months. Phase III clinical studies to assess the long term prognosis of PDT-treatment of CNV in AMD are ongoing.
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian individuals than in pigmented races. In predominantly Caucasian populations, the age-standardised prevalence of AMD in at least one eye is 7760 cases per million. The age-standardised cumulated 1-year incidence of AMD in at least one eye is 1051 cases per million individuals. AMD is the most important single cause of blindness among Caucasian individuals in developed countries. Blindness resulting from AMD rarely occurs before age 70, and most cases occur after age 80. The age-standardised 1-year incidence of legal blindness resulting from AMD is 212 cases per million. Two-thirds of AMD cases have CNV (exudative cases); the remainder has only geographic atrophy. In cross-sectional population-based studies about 45% of eyes with AMD have visual acuity reduced to 20/200 or worse. This is true both for exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy. Age and genetic predisposition are known risk factors for AMD. Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires a fluorescein angiographic study and a physician capable of interpreting it. For CNV not involving the foveal centre, the only evidence-based treatment is laser photocoagulation. For AMD cases with subfoveal CNV, good visual acuity, and predominantly classic fluorescence pattern on fluorescein angiography, photodynamic therapy with verteporfin is the treatment of choice. Photodynamic therapy is also effective in eyes with pure occult CNV and evidence of recent disease progression. For new subfoveal CNV with poor vision and recurrent CNV, laser photocoagulation can be considered.
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