Article

Coordinated activation of candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens via promoter demethylation in head and neck cancer and lung cancer.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2009; 4(3):e4961. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004961
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, however, proto-oncogenes activated by promoter demethylation have been sporadically reported. We used an integrative method to analyze expression in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and pharmacologically demethylated cell lines to identify aberrantly demethylated and expressed candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens in HNSCC.
We noted coordinated promoter demethylation and simultaneous transcriptional upregulation of proto-oncogene candidates with promoter homology, and phylogenetic footprinting of these promoters demonstrated potential recognition sites for the transcription factor BORIS. Aberrant BORIS expression correlated with upregulation of candidate proto-oncogenes in multiple human malignancies including primary non-small cell lung cancers and HNSCC, induced coordinated proto-oncogene specific promoter demethylation and expression in non-tumorigenic cells, and transformed NIH3T3 cells.
Coordinated, epigenetic unmasking of multiple genes with growth promoting activity occurs in aerodigestive cancers, and BORIS is implicated in the coordinated promoter demethylation and reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancers.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
87 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BORIS is a paralog of a highly conserved, multi-functional chromatin factor CTCF. Unlike CTCF, which has been shown to possess tumor-suppressive properties, BORIS belongs to the "cancer/testis antigen" family normally expressed only in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of tumors. The consequences of BORIS expression, relative abundance of its isoforms, and its role in carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. It activates transcription of hTERT and MYC, genes relevant for laryngeal carcinoma progression. In this study, BORIS expression has been analyzed at the transcriptional level by RT-PCR and protein level by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry in 32 laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent non-tumorous tissue. BORIS was detected in 44 % (14/32) laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma samples, while it was detected only in one normal, tumor-adjacent tissue sample. Tree based survival analysis, using the recursive partitioning algorithm mvpart, extracted the ratio of relative abundance of BORIS transcript variants containing exon 7 (BORIS 7+) and those lacking exon 7 (BORIS 7-) as an independent prognostic factor associated with disease relapse during a 5-year follow-up period. Patients having BORIS 7+/BORIS 7- ratio ≥1 had a higher rate of disease relapse than patients with BORIS 7+/BORIS 7- ratio <1. Hazard ratio for that group, based on Cox Proportional Hazard Regression, was 3.53. This is the first study analyzing expression of BORIS protein and transcript variants in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma relative to its possible prognostic value for recurrence and overall survival.
    Pathology & Oncology Research 02/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely divided into two groups based on their etiology, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative. Global DNA methylation changes are known to drive oncogene and tumor suppressor expression in primary HNSCC of both types. However, significant heterogeneity in DNA methylation within the groups results in different transcriptional profiles and clinical outcomes. We applied a meta-pathway analysis to link gene expression changes to DNA methylation in distinguishing HNSCC subtypes. This approach isolated specific epigenetic changes controlling expression in HPV- HNSCC that distinguish it from HPV+ HNSCC. Analysis of genes identified Hedgehog pathway activation specific to HPV- HNSCC. We confirmed that GLI1, the primary Hedgehog target, showed higher expression in tumors compared to normal samples with HPV- tumors having the highest GLI1 expression, suggesting that increased expression of GLI1 is a potential driver in HPV- HNSCC. Our algorithm for integration of DNA methylation and gene expression can infer biologically significant molecular pathways that may be exploited as therapeutics targets. Our results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Hedgehog pathway may be of benefit in HPV- HNSCC. Similar integrative analysis of high-throughput coupled DNA methylation and expression datasets may yield novel insights into deregulated pathways in other cancers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78127. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that contribute to tumorigenesis by acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and may be important in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. Many miRNA genes have associated CpG islands, suggesting epigenetic regulation of their expression. Compared with sporadic cancers, the role of miRNAs in hereditary or familial cancer is poorly understood. We investigated 96 colorectal carcinomas, 58 gastric carcinomas and 41 endometrial carcinomas, occurring as part of inherited DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (Lynch syndrome), familial colorectal carcinoma without MMR gene mutations or sporadically. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assays were developed for 11 miRNA loci that were chosen because all could be epigenetically regulated through the associated CpG islands and some could additionally modulate the epigenome by putatively targeting the DNA methyltransferases or their antagonist retinoblastoma-like 2 (RBL2). Compared with the respective normal tissues, the predominant alteration in tumor tissues was increased methylation for the miRNAs 1-1, 124a-1, 124a-2, 124a-3, 148a, 152 and 18b; decreased methylation for 200a and 208a; and no major change for 373 and let-7a-3. The frequencies with which the individual miRNA loci were affected in tumors showed statistically significant differences relative to the tissue of origin (colorectal versus gastric versus endometrial), MMR proficiency versus deficiency and sporadic versus hereditary disease. In particular, hypermethylation at miR-148a and miR-152 was associated with microsatellite-unstable (as opposed to stable) tumors and hypermethylation at miR-18b with sporadic disease (as opposed to Lynch syndrome). Hypermethylation at miRNA loci correlated with hypermethylation at classic tumor suppressor promoters in the same tumors. Our results highlight the importance of epigenetic events in hereditary and sporadic cancers and suggest that MS-MLPA is an excellent choice for quantitative analysis of methylation in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, which pose challenges to many other techniques commonly used for methylation studies.
    Molecular Medicine 02/2011; 17(7-8):726-35. · 4.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

View
11 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014