Molecular diversity of Bacteroides spp. in human fecal microbiota as determined by group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.
ABSTRACT Bacteroides spp. represent a prominent bacterial group in human intestinal microbiota with roles in symbiosis and pathogenicity; however, the detailed composition of this group in human feces has yet to be comprehensively characterized. In this study, the molecular diversity of Bacteroides spp. in human fecal microbiota was analyzed from a seven-member, four-generation Chinese family using Bacteroides spp. group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. A total of 549 partial 16S rRNA sequences amplified by Bacteroides spp.-specific primers were classified into 52 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a 99% sequence identity cut-off. Twenty-three OTUs, representing 83% of all clones, were related to 11 validly described Bacteroides species, dominated by Bacteroides coprocola, B. uniformis, and B. vulgatus. Most of the OTUs did not correspond to known species and represented hitherto uncharacterized bacteria. Relative to 16S rRNA gene universal libraries, the diversity of Bacteroides spp. detected by the group-specific libraries was much higher than previously described. Remarkable inter-individual differences were also observed in the composition of Bacteroides spp. in this family cohort. The comprehensive observation of molecular diversity of Bacteroides spp. provides new insights into potential contributions of various species in this group to human health and disease.
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ABSTRACT: Bacteroides is a predominant group of the faecal microbiota in healthy adults. To investigate the species composition of Bacteroides by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) combined with flow cytometry, we developed five species-specific probes targeting the 16S rRNA. Probes were designed to identify cells belonging to Bacteroides distasonis, B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. vulgatus and B. putredinis. The species-specificity of the probes was assessed against a collection of reference strains from the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The results of the FISH experiments showed that the probes were specific as they only detected strains of the target species. Determining the fluorescence intensity of each probe relative to that of the EUB 338 probe (domain bacteria) further showed that each species probe easily accessed the targeted site. The probes were applied to quantify the Bacteroides species in faeces collected from 20 healthy adults. All five species were detected in the faecal samples. Cells hybridised with Bfra 998 were the most frequent as they were observed in 90% of individuals (18/20 samples, mean proportion of 3.9 +/- 2.2%). The cells hybridised with Bvulg 1017 were observed in 85% of individuals (17/20 samples) and represented with a mean proportion of 4.2 +/- 6.1%, the most abundant Bacteroides species in human faeces. Cells hybridising with probes for B. ovatus, B. distasonis and B. putredinis were less frequently detected. The large distribution of B. vulgatus and B. fragilis in human faeces is in accordance with previous reports based on culture or molecular studies. This work showed that fluorescent in situ hybridisation is a tool appropriate for a high-resolution analysis of the species composition of complex ecosystems and especially of the Bacteroides group within the faecal microbiota.Systematic and Applied Microbiology 04/2003; 26(1):110-8. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report a rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to identify the 10 Bacteroides fragilis group species - Bacteroides caccae, B. distasonis, B. eggerthii, B. fragilis, B. merdae, B. ovatus, B. stercoris, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. uniformis and B. vulgatus. These 10 species were first divided into three subgroups by multiplex PCR-G, followed by three multiplex PCR assays with three species-specific primer mixtures for identification to the species level. The primers were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and part of the 23S rRNA gene. The established two-step multiplex PCR identification scheme was applied to the identification of 155 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group that were previously identified to the species level by phenotypic tests. The new scheme was more accurate than phenotypic identification, which was accurate only 84.5% of the time. The multiplex PCR scheme established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of the B. fragilis group species. This will permit more accurate assessment of the role of various B. fragilis group members in infections and of the degree of antimicrobial resistance in each of the group members.FEMS Microbiology Letters 06/2003; 222(1):9-16. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The signing authors together with the journal Systematic and Applied Microbiology (SAM) have started an ambitious project that has been conceived to provide a useful tool especially for the scientific microbial taxonomist community. The aim of what we have called "The All-Species Living Tree" is to reconstruct a single 16S rRNA tree harboring all sequenced type strains of the hitherto classified species of Archaea and Bacteria. This tree is to be regularly updated by adding the species with validly published names that appear monthly in the Validation and Notification lists of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. For this purpose, the SAM executive editors, together with the responsible teams of the ARB, SILVA, and LPSN projects (www.arb-home.de, www.arb-silva.de, and www.bacterio.cict.fr, respectively), have prepared a 16S rRNA database containing over 6700 sequences, each of which represents a single type strain of a classified species up to 31 December 2007. The selection of sequences had to be undertaken manually due to a high error rate in the names and information fields provided for the publicly deposited entries. In addition, from among the often occurring multiple entries for a single type strain, the best-quality sequence was selected for the project. The living tree database that SAM now provides contains corrected entries and the best-quality sequences with a manually checked alignment. The tree reconstruction has been performed by using the maximum likelihood algorithm RAxML. The tree provided in the first release is a result of the calculation of a single dataset containing 9975 single entries, 6728 corresponding to type strain gene sequences, as well as 3247 additional high-fquality sequences to give robustness to the reconstruction. Trees are dynamic structures that change on the basis of the quality and availability of the data used for their calculation. Therefore, the addition of new type strain sequences in further subsequent releases may help to resolve certain branching orders that appear ambiguous in this first release. On the web sites: www.elsevier.de/syapm and www.arb-silva.de/living-tree, the All-Species Living Tree team will release a regularly updated database compatible with the ARB software environment containing the whole 16S rRNA dataset used to reconstruct "The All-Species Living Tree". As a result, the latest reconstructed phylogeny will be provided. In addition to the ARB file, a readable multi-FASTA universal sequence editor file with the complete alignment will be provided for those not using ARB. There is also a complete set of supplementary tables and figures illustrating the selection procedure and its outcome. It is expected that the All-Species Living Tree will help to improve future classification efforts by simplifying the selection of the correct type strain sequences. For queries, information updates, remarks on the dataset or tree reconstructions shown, a contact email address has been created (email@example.com). This provides an entry point for anyone from the scientific community to provide additional input for the construction and improvement of the first tree compiling all sequenced type strains of all prokaryotic species for which names had been validly published.Systematic and Applied Microbiology 09/2008; 31(4):241-50. · 3.29 Impact Factor