Concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants and their metabolites in serum of harbour seals and harbour porpoises

Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
Environment international (Impact Factor: 5.56). 03/2009; 35(6):842-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2009.02.001
Source: PubMed


Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are top predators in the North Sea and consequently accumulate a variety of pollutants in their tissues. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs) were measured in serum of wild harbour seals (n=47) and captive harbour porpoises (n=21). Both species exhibit long life spans and do not have extreme situations, such as complete fasting during periods of lactation, in their annual cycles. For PCBs, concentrations in adult males were slightly higher than in juveniles and lowest in juvenile females. For PBDEs, juveniles have higher levels than adult males and females, probably as a consequence of lactational transfer. However, differences between these age-gender groups were not statistical significant, indicating that individual variation was limited within each species, even without knowing the feeding status of the animals. Body condition, particularly emaciation, has a major influence on the levels of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in serum. Profiles of PCBs were CB 153>CB 138>CB 187>CB 180 and CB 153>CB 138>CB 149>CB 187>CB 180 for harbour seals and porpoises respectively. For PBDEs, BDE 47 was the predominant congener followed by BDE 100 and 99 in both species. In harbour seals, concentrations of sum PCBs (median: 39,200 pg/ml) were more than 200 times higher than levels of sum PBDEs (median: 130 pg/ml) and almost 10 times higher than concentrations of sum HO-PCBs (4350 pg/ml). In harbour porpoises, concentrations of sum PCBs (median: 24,300 pg/ml) were about 20 times higher than concentrations of PBDEs (median: 1300 pg/ml). HO-PCBs were detected in only 4 harbour porpoises and this at very low concentrations. Naturally-produced MeO-PBDEs were only found in harbour porpoises at concentrations ranging from 120 to 810 pg/ml. HO-PBDEs were not found in any species. In general, harbour seals accumulate less compounds and have mostly lower concentrations than harbour porpoises possibly as a result of a better developed metabolism.

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Available from: Krishna Das, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "Actually, interspecies differences in the induction and catalytic activity of hepatic CYP isoforms have been reported (Martignoni et al., 2006). Fig. 2 shows the concentration ratios of OH-PCB isomers to their potential precursor PCBs (OH-PCBs/PCBs ratios) in Baikal seals and harbor seals (Weijs et al., 2009). Noticeable different concentration ratios were observed for 4OH-CB187/CB183 + CB187 (Baikal seal: 0.35, Harbor seal: 0.053) and 4OH-CB107/CB105 + CB118 (Baikal Fig. 2. The concentration ratios of OH-PCB isomers to their potential precursor PCBs (OH-PCBs/PCBs ratios) in Baikal seals and harbor seals. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8–130 ng g−1 wet wt. and 0.71–4.6 ng g−1 wet wt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4′OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation.
    Chemosphere 11/2014; 114:1–8. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.089 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "However, levels of ROH-PCBs (mean concentration range 2–129.5 ng/g ww) (Li et al. 2003) in pooled blood plasma of pelagic fish species from the Detroit River were one to three orders of magnitude greater than the results of the present study, although total PCB concentrations were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those in the present study (Table 1). This phenomenon could be attributed to species-specific metabolic abilities, variable OH-PCBretention capacities, and different exposure pattern of PCBs (Letcher et al. 2000; Weijs et al. 2009a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs)—including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polybromobiphenyls (PBBs), dechlorane plus (DP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) as well as PCB metabolites (methylsulfone [MeSO2-]) and hydroxylated (OH-) PCBs and OH-PBDEs—were determined in the serum of mud carp and northern snakehead from an electronic-waste (e-waste) site in South China. The average concentrations (mean ± SD) of ΣPCBs, ΣPBDEs, ΣOCPs, ΣPBBs, ΣTBBPA, ΣHBCDs, and ΣDP were 1410 ± 324, 70 ± 20, 3.0 ± 0.4, 2.8 ± 0.8, 1.6 ± 0.4, 1.0 ± 0.2, and 0.3 ± 0.03 ng/g wet weight (ww) in mud carp and 6430 ± 781, 468 ± 49, 22.4 ± 1.1, 7.0 ± 0.6, 2.9 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.1, and 4.6 ± 0.6 ng/g ww in northern snakehead, respectively. MeSO2-PCBs, OH-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs were detected at a total concentration of 0.44 ± 0.03 and 9.7 ± 0.3 ng/g ww in mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively. The congener profiles of PCBs, PBDEs, OH/MeSO2-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs were found to be significantly different between the two fish species, possibly as a result of species-specific bioaccumulation and/or metabolism of the HOPs. Chirality of ten PCB congeners and α-HBCD, as well as the f anti values of DP in the serum samples, supported the species-specific biotransformation of HOPs. Furthermore, the presence of covaried and counter-varied enantiomeric fractions of PCBs between the two fish species indicated species- and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment of PCBs.
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    • "These comparisons can be clearly observed when it is taken into account that bottlenose dolphins from Australia and Brazil presented PBDE levels two orders of magnitude lower than those from North Atlantic (Law et al., 2003; Yogui et al., 2011, Table 2). There are several studies with harbor porpoises in NE Atlantic coast and the populations from North Sea (Pierce et al., 2008; Weijs et al., 2009a, 2010a), U.K., England, Wales (Law et al., 2002, 2010; Pierce et al., 2008) and France (Pierce et al., 2008) presented the highest PBDE concentrations, reflecting the use of these endocrine disruptors compounds in these countries and their surrounding waters, as suggested by the authors. Weijs et al. (2010a) "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the available data on brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as on the naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in cetacean tissues around the world. Levels and possible sources of both compound classes are discussed. Odontocete cetaceans accumulate higher PBDE concentrations than mysticete species. PBDE contamination was higher in cetaceans from the Northern hemisphere, whereas MeO-PBDE levels were higher in animals from the Southern hemisphere. Southern resident killer whales from NE Pacific presented the highest levels reported in biota, followed by bottlenose dolphins from North Atlantic (U.K. and U.S. coast). Many species presented PBDE concentrations above threshold levels for health effects in odontocetes. Time trend studies indicate that PBDE concentrations in odontocetes from Japan, China, U.S. and Canada coastal zones have increased significantly over the past 30years. Studies from U.K. waters and NE Atlantic showed a decrease and/or stability of PBDE levels in cetacean tissues in recent decades. The highest MeO-PBDE concentrations were found in dolphins from Tanzania (Indian Ocean), bottlenose dolphins from Queensland, Australia (SW Pacific), and odontocetes from coastal and continental shelf waters off southeastern Brazil (SW Atlantic). The upwelling phenomenon and the presence of coral reef complexes in these tropical oceans may explain the large amounts of the naturally-produced organobromines. Considering that these bioaccumulative chemicals have properties that could cause many deleterious effects in those animals, future studies are required to evaluate the potential ecotoxicological risks.
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