Evaluating the usefulness of dynamic pollutant fate models for implementing the EU Water Framework Directive
ABSTRACT The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims at achieving a good ecological and chemical status of surface waters in river basins by 2015. The chemical status is considered good if the Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) are met for all substances listed on the priority list and eight additional specific emerging substances. To check compliance with these standards, the WFD requires the establishment of monitoring programmes. The minimum measuring frequency for priority substances is currently set at once per month. This can result in non-representative sampling and increased probability of misinterpretation of the surface water quality status. To assist in the classification of the water body, the combined use of monitoring data and pollutant fate models is recommended. More specifically, dynamic models are suggested, as possible exceedance of the quality standards can be predicted by such models. In the presented work, four realistic scenarios are designed and discussed to illustrate the usefulness of dynamic pollutant fate models for implementing the WFD. They comprise a combination of two priority substances and two rivers, representative for Western Europe.
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ABSTRACT: An evaluation of conventional emission scenarios is carried out targeting a possible impact of EU policies on riverine loads to the European seas for three pilot pollutants: Lindane, Trifluralin and Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The policy scenarios are investigated to the time horizon of year 2020 starting from chemical specific reference conditions and considering different types of regulatory measures including Business as Usual (BAU), current trend (CT), partial implementation (PI) or complete ban (PI ban) of emissions. The scenario analyses show that the model-estimated Lindane load of 745 t to European seas in 1995, based on the official emission data, would be reduced by 98.3% to ca.12.5 t in 2005 (BAU scenario), ten years after the start of the EU regulation of this chemical. The CT and PI ban scenarios indicate a reduction of sea loads of Lindane in 2020 by 74% and 95%, respectively, when compared to the BAU estimate. For Trifluralin, an annual load of ca. 61.7 t is estimated for the baseline year 2003 (BAU scenario), although the applied conservative assumptions related to pesticide use data availability in Europe. Under the PI (ban) scenario, assuming only small residual emissions of Trifluralin, we estimate a sea loading of ca. 0.07 t/y. For PFOS, the total sea load from all European countries is estimated at ca. 5.8 t/y referred to 2007 (BAU scenario). Reducing the total load of PFOS below 1 t/y requires emissions to be reduced by 84%. The analysis of conventional scenarios or scenario typologies for emissions of contaminants using simple spatially explicit GIS-based models is suggested as a viable, affordable exercise that may support the assessment of implementation of policies and the identification or negotiation of emission reduction targets. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2013 SETAC.Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 01/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1002/ieam.1459
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ABSTRACT: Historically, the locations of cities mainly depend on the available water source and the urban river not only supplies the fresh water to city but also receives its wastewaters. To analyze the influences of urban zone on its receiving water river, the Jialu River in Henan Province, China, a typical urban river was chosen. Water and sediment samples were collected along the river in 2007 to analyze the concentrations of xenobiotic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (XEDCs) including nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water and sediment. The results showed that the concentrations of OP, NP and BPA in surface water were 20.9-63.2 ng L(-1) (mean 39.8 ng L(-1)), 75.2-1520 ng L(-1) (mean 645 ng L(-1)), 410-2990 ng L(-1) (mean 1535 ng L(-1)), respectively. The lowest and highest concentrations of XEDCs in surface water were found in the upper stream and downstream of Zhengzhou urban zone, which was regarded as the major discharge source of these chemicals to this river. The concentrations of OP, NP and BPA in the sediment were 15.9-31.1 ng g(-1), 145-349 ng g(-1) and 626-3584 ng g(-1) with the average concentrations of 21.4 ng g(-1), 257 ng g(-1) and 2291 ng g(-1), respectively. The results of in situ sediment-water partition of XEDCs showed that the partition coefficients (log K(oc)') in the downstream were higher than that in the upstream, which was mainly caused by the retransfer of surface sediment from the upper stream to the downstream. Comparison of measured and theoretical inventories of XEDCs in sediment indicated that the residual time of XEDCs in sediment in the river was about 5 years, which was in the same order of magnitude with its big flood frequency. In order to predict concentration variances of XEDCs in surface water, a fugacity-hydrodynamic model was developed according to the concept of in series completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The model results showed that about 29-65% of XEDCs derived from the urban zone (about 2.0 t yr(-1)) would finally dissipate from aqueous phase in the 170 km downstream of the river. Assuming the discharge amount of XEDCs from the urban zone remaining constant, the predicted concentrations of the total XEDCs in the over 90% river reach would be higher than 1.0 μg L(-1) under all normal, high water and low water season in 2007.Water Research 01/2011; 45(1):292-302. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.057 · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This timely review primarily addresses important but presently undefined microbial risks to public health and to the natural environment. It specifically focuses on current knowledge, future outlooks and offers some potential alleviation strategies that may reduce or eliminate the risk of problematic microbes in their viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the aquatic environment. As emphasis is placed on water quality, particularly surrounding efficacy of decontamination at the wastewater treatment plant level, this review also touches upon other related emerging issues, namely, the fate and potential ecotoxicological impact of untreated antibiotics and other pharmaceutically active compounds in water. Deciphering best published data has elucidated gaps between science and policy that will help stakeholders work towards the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), which provides an ambitious legislative framework for water quality improvements within its region and seeks to restore all water bodies to "good ecological status" by 2015. Future effective risk-based assessment and management, post definition of the plethora of dynamic inter-related factors governing the occurrence, persistence and/or control of these presently undefined hazards in water will also demand exploiting and harnessing tangential advances in allied disciplines such as mathematical and computer modeling that will permit efficient data generation and transparent reporting to be undertaken by well-balanced consortia of stakeholders.International Journal of Microbiology 01/2011; 2011:462832. DOI:10.1155/2011/462832