Anti-psoriatic effects of indigo naturalis on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes with indirubin as the active component
ABSTRACT Indigo naturalis has shown efficacy in treating psoriasis in our previous clinical studies.
To investigate the potential effect of indigo naturalis on regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.
Skin samples from six patients were analyzed for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and involucrin expression by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, indigo naturalis extracts from 10 to 500 microg/ml were added to cultured keratinocytes and cell viability determined. Real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting analysis and indirect immunofluorescent labeling were used to investigate the messenger (m)RNA and protein expressions of PCNA and involucrin. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify major components of indigo naturalis and their in vitro effects compared.
Immunohistochemical results demonstrated decreased PCNA and increased involucrin in psoriatic lesions after indigo naturalis treatment. Cultured keratinocytes decreased after indigo naturalis treatment, while G(0)/G(1) arrest was observed to dose-dependently increase. Staining revealed decreased PCNA-stained nuclei and increased cytosolic involucrin in treated keratinocytes. Decreased PCNA and increased involucrin at both the mRNA and protein levels were confirmed. Both major components, indirubin and indigo, could cause G(0)/G(1) phase arrest; however, only indirubin modulated the expressions of PCNA and involucrin similar to indigo naturalis.
Together, these findings indicate that the anti-psoriatic effects of indigo naturalis are mediated, at least in part, by modulating the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, with indirubin as the major active component.
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ABSTRACT: IFI27 is highly expressed in psoriatic lesions but its function has not been known. The present study aimed to explore its role in proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. IFI27 knockdown and over-expression in keratinocytes were used to compare their proliferation, by MTT assay, apoptosis (by annexin V binding) and cell cycle progression by flow cytometry. Formation of cyclin A/CDK1 complex was examined by a co-immunoprecipitaion method. Anti-proliferation effects of IFI27 were also examined in vivo by topical application of IFI27 siRNA on imiquimod-induced psoriatic lesions, in a mouse model. Epidermal growth factor was demonstrated to increase IFI27 expression by prolonging half-life of IFI27 protein. The IFI27 knockdown in keratinocytes reduced the proliferation rate, but had no effect on apoptosis nor on apoptosis-related genes. Interestingly, IFI27 knockdown resulted in S-phase arrest that was found to be associated with increased Tyr15 phosphorylation of CDK1, reduced CDC25B and reduced formation of cyclin A/CDK1 complex. In addition, IFI27 knockdown was also shown to activate p53 by Ser15 phosphorylation and increase p21 expression. Topical application of IFI27 siRNA on imiquimod-induced psoriatic lesion in a mouse model reduced epidermal thickness, formation of rete ridges and PCNA expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time, that cell function of IFI27 is involved in proliferation of skin keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that IFI27 might be a suitable target for development of a novel anti-psoriasis therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Cell Proliferation 02/2015; 48(2). DOI:10.1111/cpr.12168 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Indirubin derivatives and analogs comprise a significant group of ATP-competitive inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of ChEMBL474807 (1-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-5-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-N'-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbohydrazide) on two enzymes, namely glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK-2), were analyzed. The close resemblance of the amino acid sequences of these two enzymes (with 25 % identity and 41 % similarity) explains why indirubin derivatives are inhibitors of both of the enzymes studied. The docking and molecular dynamics investigation performed here led to the identification of the interactions responsible for stabilizing the ligand ChEMBL474807 at the active sites of the enzymes considered. The structural and energetic data collected during our investigations clearly indicate that there are important differences in the behavior of the ligand at the two active sites investigated here.Journal of Molecular Modeling 04/2015; 21(4):2627. DOI:10.1007/s00894-015-2627-z · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the development of neovessels from pre-existing vessels, is obligatory for solid tumors survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis. Many anti-angiogenic agents are small molecules originated from natural sources. Recently, angiosuppressive effects of indirubin and its derivatives, the active components in indigo-producing herbs, have been shown to possess anti-viral and anti-inflammatory potentials. In this study, we identified another indirubin derivative, indirubin-3'-(2,3 dihydroxypropyl)-oximether (E804), could exhibit potent angiosuppressive effects. In vitro study showed that E804 could significantly inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferation, migration, and tube formation in a concentration-dependent manner (0.4-40 μM); at the concentration of 1 μmol or above, angiosuppressive potency of E804 was found to be more significant than indirubin-3'-oxime. Using in vivo Matrigel plug model and directed-in vivo-angiogenesis-assay (DIVAA), E804 was shown more effective to attenuate the VEGF/bFGF-induced neovessel formation. The hemoglobin content and the invaded endothelial cells in the implants were also greatly reduced. Results from the aortic ring assay indicated E804 (4 μM) could completely suppress ex vivo sprouting of endothelial cells from the rat aorta fragments; with concomitant reduction of gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. E804 also concentration-dependently (0.04-10 μM) inhibited the subintestinal vessels formation in zebrafish embryos. This study provides the first evidence that E804, a novel indirubin derivative, could more effectively inhibit angiogenesis. With the improved anti-angiogenic potency when compared with indirubin-3'oxime, E804 would be a new potential candidate in the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases.Biochemical pharmacology 12/2011; 83(5):598-607. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2011.12.003 · 4.65 Impact Factor