Alcohol problems and all-cause mortality in men and women: predictive capacity of a clinical screening tool in a 21-year follow-up of a large, UK-wide, general population-based survey.
ABSTRACT While the relation between alcohol consumption and mortality has been well explored, little is known about the link between alcohol problems and mortality in general population-based studies, particularly among women. This was the objective of the present study
In this prospective cohort study, 5333 non-abstaining individuals (2539 women) from the UK-wide Health and Lifestyle Survey (aged 42.9 years at study induction) completed the CAGE questionnaire of alcohol problems and participated in a medical examination in 1984/1985; they were then followed up for mortality experience until 2005.
Alcohol problems at baseline were less common in women (2.4%) than in men (7.8%). A total of 21 years of follow-up gave rise to 1201 deaths. Elevated rates of mortality were evident in persons reporting symptoms of alcohol problems in comparison to those who did not. In gender-stratified analyses, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with mortality risk in women (age-adjusted hazards ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.12) than in men (1.49; 1.12-1.99), although this effect modification was not statistically significant (P value for interaction=0.125). Controlling for a range of covariates--including socioeconomic position, co-morbidity (somatic and psychiatric), and alcohol intake--had essentially no impact on these associations.
The CAGE questionnaire may have some utility in routine health assessments in the general population.
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ABSTRACT: Alcoholism is associated with susceptibility to infectious disease, particularly bacterial pneumonia. In the present study we described characteristics in alcoholic patients with bacterial meningitis and delineate the differences with findings in non-alcoholic adults with bacterial meningitis. This was a prospective nationwide observational cohort study including patients aged >16 years who had bacterial meningitis confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid (696 episodes of bacterial meningitis occurring in 671 patients). Alcoholism was present in 27 of 686 recorded episodes of bacterial meningitis (4%) and alcoholics were more often male than non-alcoholics (82% vs 48%, P = 0.001). A higher proportion of alcoholics had underlying pneumonia (41% vs 11% P<0.001). Alcoholics were more likely to have meningitis due to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae (70% vs 50%, P = 0.01) and Listeria monocytogenes (19% vs 4%, P = 0.005), whereas Neisseria meningitidis was more common in non-alcoholic patients (39% vs 4%, P = 0.01). A large proportion of alcoholics developed complications during clinical course (82% vs 62%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.04), often cardiorespiratory failure (52% vs 28%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P = 0.01). Alcoholic patients were at risk for unfavourable outcome (67% vs 33%, as compared with non-alcoholics; P<0.001). Alcoholic patients are at high risk for complications resulting in high morbidity and mortality. They are especially at risk for cardiorespiratory failure due to underlying pneumonia, and therefore, aggressive supportive care may be crucial in the treatment of these patients.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(2):e9102. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the sex- and age-specific risk of mortality associated with scores on the 3-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) questionnaire using data from a national sample of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Men (N = 215,924) and women (N = 9168) who completed the AUDIT-C in a patient survey were followed for 24 months. AUDIT-C categories (0, 1-4, 5-8, 9-12) were evaluated as predictors of mortality in logistic regression models, adjusted for age, race, education, marital status, smoking, depression, and comorbidities. For women, AUDIT-C scores of 9-12 were associated with a significantly increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (odds ratio [OR] 7.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67, 18.82). For men overall, AUDIT-C scores of 5-8 and 9-12 were associated with increased risk of death compared to the AUDIT-C 1-4 group (OR 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.21, and OR 1.63, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.84, respectively) but these associations varied by age. These results provide sex- and age-tailored risk information that clinicians can use in evidence-based conversations with patients about the health-related risks of their alcohol consumption. This study adds to the growing literature establishing the AUDIT-C as a scaled marker of alcohol-related risk or "vital sign" that might facilitate the detection and management of alcohol-related risks and problems.Population Health Management 10/2010; 13(5):263-8. · 1.02 Impact Factor