Modulation of proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells by fatty acids.
ABSTRACT This study was performed to elucidate whether mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the modulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by fatty acids.
C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in differentiation medium containing 2% horse serum for 3 days, and treated with each fatty acid. Phosphorylation levels of MAPKs were examined by immunoblot analysis.
The mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), oleic acid (OA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linoleic acid (GLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) increased the proliferation of C2C12 cells. On the other hand, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFs) did not affect the proliferation of C2C12 cells. In addition, the treatment of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) showed an increased cell proliferation. However, trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA) significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Treatment of C2C12 cells with LA, OA, and c9,t11 CLA increased phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and JNK during proliferation. During cell differentiation, OA, LA, and c9,t11 CLA stimulated differentiation of C2C12 cells, whereas t10,c12 CLA inhibited differentiation. We also found that OA, LA, and c9, t11 CLA increased phosphorylation level of ERK1/2, but not JNK during differentiation.
These results suggest that fatty acids are able to modulate the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle and MAPKs may be involved in the modulation of the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells by fatty acids.
Article: Investigation of interactions between poly-L-lysine-coated boron nitride nanotubes and C2C12 cells: up-take, cytocompatibility, and differentiation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have generated considerable interest within the scientific community by virtue of their unique physical properties, which can be exploited in the biomedical field. In the present in vitro study, we investigated the interactions of poly-l-lysine-coated BNNTs with C2C12 cells, as a model of muscle cells, in terms of cytocompatibility and BNNT internalization. The latter was performed using both confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, we investigated myoblast differentiation in the presence of BNNTs, evaluating the protein synthesis of differentiating cells, myotube formation, and expression of some constitutive myoblastic markers, such as MyoD and Cx43, by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We demonstrated that BNNTs are highly internalized by C2C12 cells, with neither adversely affecting C2C12 myoblast viability nor significantly interfering with myotube formation.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2010; 5:285-98. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this report, we sought to elucidate whether multiwall carbon nanotubes are involved in the modulation of the proliferation and differentiation of the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for 40% of total body weight and 50% of energy consumption. We focused on the differentiation pathway of myoblasts after exposure to a vapor-grown carbon fiber, HTT2800, which is one of the most highly purified carbon nanotubes. This treatment leads in parallel to the expression of a typical adipose differentiation program. We found that HTT2800 stimulated intracellular lipid accumulation in C2C12 cells. We have also shown by quantified PCR analysis that the expression of adipose-related genes was markedly upregulated during HTT2800 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that HTT2800 specifically converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts to that of adipoblast-like cells.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 406(4):558-63. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that long chain fatty acids influence fibroblast function at sub-lethal concentrations. This study is the first to assess the effects of oleic, linoleic or palmitic acids on protein expression of fibroblasts, as determined by standard proteomic techniques. The fatty acids were not cytotoxic at the concentration used in this work as assessed by membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and the MTT assay but significantly increased cell proliferation. Subsequently, a proteomic analysis was performed using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and MS based identification. Cells treated with 50 μM oleic, linoleic or palmitic acid for 24 h were associated with 24, 22, 16 spots differentially expressed, respectively. Among the identified proteins, α-enolase and far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP-1) are of importance due to their function in fibroblast-associated diseases. However, modulation of α-enolase and FBP-1 expression by fatty acids was not validated by the Western blot technique.Lipids in Health and Disease 11/2011; 10:218. · 2.17 Impact Factor