There is increasing evidence that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) plays an important role in cell signaling pathways. It has also been reported that increases in O-GlcNAc contribute to the development of diabetes and diabetic complications; however, little is known about O-GlcNAc levels in diabetic nephropathy (DNP). Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether O-GlcNAc could be detected in human kidney biopsy specimens, and if so to examine whether O-GlcNAc levels were increased in the kidneys of patients with DNP compared to the non-diabetic individuals.
Kidney biopsy specimens were obtained from type-2 diabetic patients (n=6) and patients diagnosed with thin basement membrane nephropathy (n=7) were used as non-diabetic controls. O-GlcNAc levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry using the anti-O-GlcNAc antibody CTD110.6.
We show that O-GlcNAc modification of proteins can be detected in the human kidney biopsy specimens. Furthermore, in diabetic patients, we found significantly increased numbers of O-GlcNAc positive cells in the glomeruli and significantly elevated staining in the tubuli (both in the nucleus and in the cytosol). In addition we also observed an intense, granular O-GlcNAc staining specifically in diabetic tubuli.
In light of the increase in O-GlcNAc staining in the diabetic patients, we propose that increased O-GlcNAc levels might contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy.
"Regulation by the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway We have identified a key role for the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in the fly's response to HDS, an observation consistent with a role in mammalian diabetic nephropathy (Degrell et al., 2009; Goldberg et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2004). This includes overall insulin resistance, cardiac dysfunction, and nephrocyte dysfunction . "
"Kidney was fixed in 10 % formalin, paraffin embedded, 5 µm wide sections were taken and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) for determination of glomerular matrix expansion, vascular hyalinosis and tubulointerstitial lesions as previously described . Briefly, glomerular hypertrophy was determined by measuring the glomerular tuft area of 50 glomerular cross-sections excluding incomplete glomeruli along the sample edge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are the standard clinical therapy of diabetic nephropathy (DN), while aldosterone antagonists are only used as adjuncts. Previously in experimental DN we showed that Na/K ATPase (NKA) is mislocated and angiotensin II leads to superimposed renal progression. Here we investigated the monotherapeutic effect of aldosterone blockers on the progression of DN and renal NKA alteration in comparison to ACEi and ARBs. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats developing DN were treated with aldosterone antagonists; ACEi and ARB. Renal function, morphology, protein level and tubular localization of NKA were analyzed. To evaluate the effect of high glucose per se; HK-2 proximal tubular cells were cultured in normal or high concentration of glucose and treated with the same agents. Aldosterone antagonists were the most effective in ameliorating functional and structural kidney damage and they normalized diabetes induced bradycardia and weight loss. Aldosterone blockers also prevented hyperglycemia and diabetes induced increase in NKA protein level and enzyme mislocation. A monotherapy with aldosterone antagonists might be as, or more effective than ACEi or ARBs in the prevention of STZ-induced DN. Furthermore the alteration of the NKA could represent a novel pathophysiological feature of DN and might serve as an additional target of aldosterone blockers.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39938. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039938 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"We previously demonstrated increased O-GlcNAcylation in the kidney and pancreas of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, which is an animal model of type 2 diabetes [10,11]. Also, altered O-GlcNAcylation and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression were recently reported in the kidney from diabetic patients . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT:
The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
O-GlcNAcylated proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and peptide mass fingerprinting. The level of O-GlcNAcylation of these proteins was examined by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).
O-GlcNAcylated proteins that changed significantly in the degree of O-GlcNAcylation were identified as cytoskeletal proteins (α-actin, α-tubulin, α-actinin 4, myosin) and mitochondrial proteins (ATP synthase β, pyruvate carboxylase). The extent of O-GlcNAcylation of the above proteins increased in the diabetic kidney. Immunofluorescence and in situ PLA studies revealed that the levels of O-GlcNAcylation of actin, α-actinin 4 and myosin were significantly increased in the glomerulus and the proximal tubule of the diabetic kidney. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that immunolabeling of α-actinin 4 is disturbed and increased in the foot process of podocytes of glomerulus and in the microvilli of proximal tubules.
These results suggest that changes in the O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins are closely associated with the morphological changes in the podocyte foot processes in the glomerulus and in microvilli of proximal tubules in the diabetic kidney. This is the first report to show that α-actinin 4 is O-GlcNAcylated. α-Actinin 4 will be a good marker protein to examine the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and diabetic nephropathy.
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