Evidence of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine in diabetic nephropathy
ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) plays an important role in cell signaling pathways. It has also been reported that increases in O-GlcNAc contribute to the development of diabetes and diabetic complications; however, little is known about O-GlcNAc levels in diabetic nephropathy (DNP). Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether O-GlcNAc could be detected in human kidney biopsy specimens, and if so to examine whether O-GlcNAc levels were increased in the kidneys of patients with DNP compared to the non-diabetic individuals.
Kidney biopsy specimens were obtained from type-2 diabetic patients (n=6) and patients diagnosed with thin basement membrane nephropathy (n=7) were used as non-diabetic controls. O-GlcNAc levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry using the anti-O-GlcNAc antibody CTD110.6.
We show that O-GlcNAc modification of proteins can be detected in the human kidney biopsy specimens. Furthermore, in diabetic patients, we found significantly increased numbers of O-GlcNAc positive cells in the glomeruli and significantly elevated staining in the tubuli (both in the nucleus and in the cytosol). In addition we also observed an intense, granular O-GlcNAc staining specifically in diabetic tubuli.
In light of the increase in O-GlcNAc staining in the diabetic patients, we propose that increased O-GlcNAc levels might contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy.
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ABSTRACT: We have investigated the effect of glucosamine on the retinal cells after continuous infusion into cerebroventricle by using osmotic minipump to avoid peripheral effect. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) infusion of glucosamine with the rate of 0.1 /10 /hr for 7 days resulted in morphological changes of the optic nerve in electron microscopic level as well as morphological changes of the retina in light microscopic level. Retinal sections were immunostained for the detection of morphological changes of astrocytes. GFAP immunoreactivity appeared not only in the Muller cells but also many of the radial processes of Muller cells. The optic nerve showed deformed axon and slight lamellar separation of myelin sheath after continuous infusion of glucosamine in observing with electron microscope. Interestingly, vacuoles were observed in deformed axons and retinal layers were folded and detached. These results suggested that glucosamine plays a role in induction of morphological dysfunction in retina and optic nerves.Biomolecules and Therapeutics 10/2009; 17(4):362-369. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2009.17.4.362 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A procedure is presented for dynamic statistical modeling of predictands with nonlinear predictand-predictor relationships when there are many potential predictors. Classification and regression trees (CART) are used for predictor selection and data stratification. The CART output is suitable for piecewise-continuous predictands. Using predictors selected by CART, a neuro-fuzzy inference system (NFIS) algorithm produces an output model for continuous predictands. An application to modeling ground-level ozone is discussedFuzzy Information Processing Society, 1999. NAFIPS. 18th International Conference of the North American; 08/1999
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ABSTRACT: Acute increases in O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels of cardiac proteins exert protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. One strategy to rapidly increase cellular O-GlcNAc levels is inhibition of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which catalyzes O-GlcNAc removal. Here we tested the cardioprotective efficacy of two novel and highly selective OGA inhibitors, the NAG-thiazoline derivatives NAG-Bt and NAG-Ae. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 20 min global ischemia followed by 60 min reperfusion. At the time of reperfusion, hearts were assigned to the following four groups: 1) untreated control; 2) 50 μM NAG-Bt; 3) 100 μM NAG-Bt; or 4) 50 μM NAG-Ae. All treatment groups significantly increased total O-GlcNAc levels (P < 0.05 vs. control), and this was significantly correlated with improved contractile function and reduced cardiac troponin I release (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry of normoxic hearts showed intense nuclear O-GlcNAc staining and higher intensity at Z-lines with colocalization of O-GlcNAc and the Z-line proteins desmin and vinculin. After I/R, there was a marked loss of both cytosolic and nuclear O-GlcNAcylation and disruption of normal striated Z-line structures. OGA inhibition largely preserved structural integrity and attenuated the loss of O-GlcNAcylation; however, nuclear O-GlcNAc levels remained low. Immunoblot analysis confirmed ∼50% loss in both nuclear and cytosolic O-GlcNAcylation following I/R, which was significantly attenuated by OGA inhibition (P < 0.05). These data provide further support for the notion that increasing cardiac O-GlcNAc levels by inhibiting OGA may be a clinically relevant approach for ischemic cardioprotection, in part, by preserving the integrity of O-GlcNAc-associated Z-line protein structures.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 11/2010; 299(5):H1715-27. DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00337.2010 · 4.01 Impact Factor