Gender differences in adolescent substance abuse

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue, NW, Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20010, USA.
Current Psychiatry Reports (Impact Factor: 3.24). 05/2009; 11(2):120-6. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-009-0019-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidities, and treatment responses of substance abuse have been described in adults. However, a growing body of data suggests that gender differences also exist in adolescents with substance abuse. Unfortunately, research is still limited in this age group. This article reviews gender differences in the diagnosis, presentation, course of illness, and treatment response of substance abuse in adults and adolescents. Adolescent substance abuse treatments that take into account these gender differences are also discussed.

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    • "To fill gaps in the literature, we sought to (1) compare rates of alcohol and tobacco use in treatment-seeking youth with chronic pain compared with youth without chronic pain; and (2) determine the relationship between loneliness, depressive symptoms, pain, and activity limitations to adolescent alcohol and tobacco use, controlling for established demographic correlates (e.g., age, sex, income, race; Cleveland, Feinberg, Bontempo, & Greenberg, 2008; Droomers, Schrijvers, Casswell, & Mackenbach, 2003; Kloos, Weller, Chan, & Weller, 2009). We did not have hypotheses regarding overall rates of use; however, in light of literature suggesting greater social difficulties among youth with chronic pain, we hypothesized that adolescents with chronic pain would report drinking alcohol and using tobacco to a lesser degree than adolescents without chronic pain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare rates of alcohol and tobacco use in youth with and without chronic pain and to identify risk factors for use. Methods Participants included 186 youth (95 mixed chronic pain; 91 without chronic pain; 12–18 years old) who reported current alcohol and tobacco use, pain intensity, activity limitations, loneliness, and depressive symptoms. Results Adolescents with chronic pain were less likely to use alcohol compared with adolescents without chronic pain (7.4% vs. 22%), and as likely to use tobacco (9% vs. 8%). Across groups, youth with higher depressive symptoms, less loneliness, and fewer activity limitations were more likely to endorse alcohol and tobacco use. Exploratory analyses revealed that risk factors for substance use differed among youth with and without chronic pain. Conclusions Chronic pain may not increase risk for tobacco and alcohol use in adolescents. Research is needed to understand use of other substances in this medically vulnerable population.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 01/2015; 40(5). DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsu116 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    • "Women, for instance, are known to use on average less drugs than men (Van Etten & Anthony, 2001). Kloos and colleagues (2009), for instance, suggested social and cultural norms might explain gender differences in drug abuse. Traditionally, females fear to lose control in a social context; consequently fewer women succumb to drug misuse whereas drug consumption may serve a purpose in regulating emotions, especially anger and impulsiveness (Kloos et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted behaviour. Current research shows that there is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use. Risk and protective factors relative to drug use were also a focus of interest. Method. High school pupils (n = 146) aged 17–21 years, responded to the Adolescent Health and Development Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Knowledge, and the Attitudes and Beliefs. Direct logistic, multiple regression analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data. Results. Positive Attitudes towards drugs were predicted by risk factors (odds ratio = 37.31) and gender (odds ratio = .32). Risk factors (odds ratio = 46.89), positive attitudes towards drugs (odds ratio = 4.63), and impulsiveness (odds ratio = 1.11) predicted drug usage. Risk factors dimensions Family, Friends and Individual Char- acteristic were positively related to impulsiveness among drug users. Moreover, although boys reported using drugs to a greater extent, girls expressed more positive attitude towards drugs and even reported more impulsiveness than boys. Conclusion. This study reinforces the notion that research ought to focus on gender differences relative to pro-drug attitudes along with testing for diVerences in the predictors of girls’ and boys’ delinquency and impulsiveness. Positive attitudes towards drugs among adolescents seem to be part of a vicious circle including risk factors, such as friendly drug environments (e.g., friends who use drugs) and unsupportive family environments, individual characteristics, and impulsiveness.
    PeerJ 06/2014; DOI:10.7717/peerj.410 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    • "‫לאידאולוגיה‬ ‫נוספים‬ ‫משתנים‬ ‫והן‬ ‫בחומרים‬ ‫לשימוש‬ ‫ביחס‬ ‫הן‬ ‫משמעותי‬ ‫הנבדקים‬ ‫מין‬ ‫כי‬ ‫נמצא‬ ‫רבים‬ ‫במחקרים‬ .‫יישוב‬ ‫בכמות‬ ‫בסמים‬ ‫להשתמש‬ ‫נוהגים‬ ‫בנים‬ ‫כי‬ ‫נמצא‬ ‫המחקרים‬ ‫ברוב‬ .‫שימוש‬ ‫כלפי‬ ‫לעמדות‬ ‫ביחס‬ James, Wagner( ‫בנות‬ ‫של‬ ‫מאשר‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫מתירניות‬ ,‫בהתאם‬ ,‫ועמדותיהם‬ ,‫מבנות‬ ‫יותר‬ ‫רבה‬ .)& Anthony, 2002; Kloos et. al., 2009; Trulsson, 2006"
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    ABSTRACT: מחקרים רבים נעשו בישראל לבחינת שימוש בחומרים פסיכו־אקטיביים ועמדות כלפי שימוש בקרב בני נוער (כגון בר־המבורגר ואחרים, 2006 ; טייכמן ורהב, 1995 , 1999 ; שרם־בנינסון, 2009 ). עם זאת, מסקירת הספרות המקצועית עולה תמונה של חסך בנתונים ובידע ממוקד באשר למתרחש בנושא הסמים בקרב מתבגרים המתגוררים באזור יהודה ושומרון(להלן: יו"ש). לאור הקשיים הביטחוניים והפוליטיים המאפיינים את המגורים ביו"ש, עולה השאלה האם למאפיינים הייחודיים של אזור זה השפעה על השימוש בחומרים פסיכו־אקטיביים ועל עמדות כלפי שימוש בהם. המחקר בדק משתנים דמוגרפיים שונים, ביניהם: רמת מחויבות אידאולוגית־פוליטית, רמת דתיות וגודל יישוב, במטרה למפות לראשונה את ההתייחסות לסמים באזור ייחודי זה.
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