Regulatory lymphocytes and intestinal inflammation.
ABSTRACT The immune system is pivotal in mediating the interactions between host and microbiota that shape the intestinal environment. Intestinal homeostasis arises from a highly dynamic balance between host protective immunity and regulatory mechanisms. This regulation is achieved by a number of cell populations acting through a set of shared regulatory pathways. In this review, we summarize the main lymphocyte subsets controlling immune responsiveness in the gut and their mechanisms of control, which involve maintenance of intestinal barrier function and suppression of chronic inflammation. CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells play a nonredundant role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis through IL-10- and TGF-beta-dependent mechanisms. Their activity is complemented by other T and B lymphocytes. Because breakdown in immune regulatory networks in the intestine leads to chronic inflammatory diseases of the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, regulatory lymphocytes are an attractive target for therapies of intestinal inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which probiotic lactobacilli affect the immune system is strain specific. As the immune system is multi-compartmental system, each strain has his way to interact with it and induce a visible and quantifiable effect. This review summarises the interplay existing between the host immune system, with emphasis on lactobacilli as a prototype probiotic genus. Several aspects including the bacterial-host cross-talk with the mucosal and systemic immune system are presented, as well as short sections on the competing effect toward pathogenic bacteria and their uses as delivery vehicle for antigens.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2014; 117(2):303-319. DOI:10.1111/jam.12521 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in protection against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable between populations. One possible explanation for this variability is increased exposure of certain populations to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study used a murine model to determine the effect that exposure to NTM after BCG vaccination had on the efficacy of BCG against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The effects of administering live M. avium (MA) by an oral route and killed MA by a systemic route on BCG-induced protection were evaluated. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were profiled to define the immunological mechanisms underlying any effect on BCG efficacy. BCG efficacy was enhanced by exposure to killed MA administered by a systemic route; T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses were associated with increased protection. BCG efficacy was reduced by exposure to live MA administered by the oral route; T helper 2 cells were associated with reduced protection. These findings demonstrate that exposure to NTM can induce opposite effects on BCG efficacy depending on route of exposure and viability of NTM. A reproducible model of NTM exposure would be valuable in the evaluation of novel TB vaccine candidates.Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 05/2014; 94(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tube.2013.12.006 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Commensal gut microflora and dietary fiber protect against colonic inflammation and colon cancer through unknown targets. Butyrate, a bacterial product from fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon, has been implicated in this process. GPR109A (encoded by Niacr1) is a receptor for butyrate in the colon. GPR109A is also a receptor for niacin, which is also produced by gut microbiota and suppresses intestinal inflammation. Here we showed that Gpr109a signaling promoted anti-inflammatory properties in colonic macrophages and dendritic cells and enabled them to induce differentiation of Treg cells and IL-10-producing T cells. Moreover, Gpr109a was essential for butyrate-mediated induction of IL-18 in colonic epithelium. Consequently, Niacr1(-/-) mice were susceptible to development of colonic inflammation and colon cancer. Niacin, a pharmacological Gpr109a agonist, suppressed colitis and colon cancer in a Gpr109a-dependent manner. Thus, Gpr10a has an essential role in mediating the beneficial effects of gut microbiota and dietary fiber in colon.Immunity 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.12.007 · 19.75 Impact Factor