Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and adipokines: new markers for activity and disease progression?
ABSTRACT Cytokines may play an important role as inflammatory factors in liver diseases. There is some evidence suggesting a link between adiponectin-biliary function and liver disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of adipokines in autoimmune hepatitis type 1.
We assessed the circulating levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin and leptin in 42 patients with autoimmune hepatitis, comparing them with 42 healthy subjects who were matched for age and sex and with 31 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), evaluating the associations with markers of cytolysis, cholestasis, and histological severity.
Adiponectin and TNF-alpha values were higher in patients compared to controls. The patients showed significantly higher Homeostasis Model Assessment values, suggesting an increased insulin resistance and serum levels of adiponectin positively correlated with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and alkaline phosphatase values after a simple regression analysis. Serum levels of resistin positively correlated with elevated aminotransferases and bilirubin values, and serum levels of TNF-alpha positively correlated with elevated alanine-aminotransferase and resistin values. The concentration of adiponectin increased significantly with staging of the disease. Patients with NASH showed lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of resistin than AIH patients and controls.
Patients with AIH showed significantly higher adiponectin concentrations than controls despite their higher HOMA-IR values. The significant correlation between adiponectin levels and serological features of cholestasis suggested an association with biliary function. Our results indicate that adiponectin may be a possible marker for disease progression in AIH.
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ABSTRACT: Background and aims. There is growing evidence that white adipose tissue is an important contributor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We investigated serum concentrations of total adiponectin (Acrp30), leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic alcohol abuse and different grades of liver dysfunction, as well as ALD complications. Materials and Methods. One hundred forty-seven consecutive inpatients with ALD were prospectively recruited. The evaluation of plasma adipokine levels was performed using immunoenzymatic ELISA tests. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results. Acrp30 and resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with ALD than in controls. Lower leptin levels in females with ALD compared to controls, but no significant differences in leptin concentrations in males, were found. High serum Acrp30 level revealed an independent association with advanced liver dysfunction, as well as the development of ALD complications, that is, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in serum leptin concentrations may influence the ALD course, different in females compared with males. Serum Acrp30 level may serve as a potential prognostic indicator for patients with ALD.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:148526. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytokine signaling has been connected to regulation of metabolism and energy balance. Numerous cytokine gene expression changes are stimulated by accumulation of bile acids in livers of young Foxa2 liver-conditional null mice. We hypothesized that bile acid-induced inflammation in young Foxa2 mutants, once chronic, affects metabolic homeostasis. We found that loss of Foxa2 in the liver results in a premature aging phenotype, including significant weight gain, reduced food intake, and decreased energy expenditure. We show that Foxa2 antagonizes the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, resulting in increased hepatic lipogenesis and adiposity. While much prior work has focused on adipose tissue in obesity, we discovered a novel age-onset obesity phenotype in a model where gene deletion occurs only in the liver, underscoring the importance of the role hepatic lipogenesis plays in the development of obesity.Molecular metabolism. 01/2013; 2(4):447-456.
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ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine synthesized by adipose tissue and has been shown to be a key component in the relationship between adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation. It circulates in plasma at physiological concentrations that represent 0.05% of all plasma proteins. Adiponectin has trimeric, hexameric and multimeric forms that bind to receptors AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and T-cadherin especially in liver, muscle and endothelial cells. Adiponectin is considered a potent modulator of lipid and glucose metabolism with antidiabetic, antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. The hepatoprotective effects of adiponectin, especially in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), have been widely investigated, and its antisteatotic, anti-inflammatory and antifibrogenic effects have already been described. Adiponectin levels are reduced in individuals with fatty liver disease independently of body mass index, insulin resistance and other adipokines, and are inversely related to the severity of steatosis and necroinflammation, suggesting an important role in the relationship between adipose tissue, the liver and insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin has also been found to be reduced in cases of hepatitis B and C infection, and in cholestatic and autoimmune diseases, but is increased in patients with cirrhosis of different aetiologies. In addition, an important role for the liver in the regulation of adiponectin secretion by adipocytes, mediated by bile acids, has recently been proposed. The present report describes the importance of adiponectin in hepatic diseases as well as some future perspectives of the role of adiponectin as a biomarker and therapeutic target in liver diseases.Diabetes & Metabolism 01/2014; · 2.39 Impact Factor