Pulmonary function and airway hyperresponsiveness in adults with sickle cell disease.

Department of Chest Diseases, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Dadaloglu Mah. 39 Sok. No. 6, Yuregir, Adana, Turkey.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose (Impact Factor: 2.06). 04/2009; 187(3):195-200. DOI: 10.1007/s00408-009-9141-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pulmonary involvement is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Although a high prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) has been reported, there are no studies demonstrating the relationship between AHR and acute chest syndrome (ACS) in adults with SCD. We investigated AHR prevalence, lung function abnormalities, and the relationships of these variables with ACS in SCD patients.
Thirty-one adult patients without asthmatic symptoms were compared with 31 matched controls. Expiratory flow rates, lung volumes, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO), and methacholine provocation test (MPT) results were assessed.
Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second, forced expiratory flow rate at 25% to 75% of FVC (FEF(25%-75%)), peak expiratory flow rate, total lung capacity, and DLCO values were significantly lower in the patient group than in the controls. No significant difference in pulmonary function test results was found between patients with and without a history of ACS. Fifteen patients with SCD (48%) and only 5 controls (16%) had AHR (p = 0.007). A significant correlation was found between the number of ACS episodes and MPT positivity (r = 0.379, p = 0.035). The FEF(25%-75%) values were significantly lower in patients with positive MPT results than in patients with negative MPT results (p = 0.027).
The prevalence of AHR was high in adult patients with SCD. A significant correlation was found between AHR and recurrent ACS episodes. Anti-inflammatory controller agents can be used routinely to decrease pulmonary morbidity associated with SCD, even in the absence of asthmatic symptoms.

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    ABSTRACT: A physician diagnosis of asthma in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been associated with increased rates of pain and acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes and premature death. Despite the clinical significance of a doctor's diagnosis of asthma in individuals with SCD, the criteria for a physician diagnosis of asthma are not well defined. Many features of asthma are common in individuals with SCD, including symptoms of wheezing, obstructive lung disease and airway hyper-responsiveness. However, it is not clear if these signs and symptoms of asthma reflect a physician diagnosis of asthma, or if these asthma features are related to SCD. Further complicating the diagnosis of asthma in children with SCD is the significant overlap in clinical manifestations between an asthma exacerbation and an ACS episode. Evidence supporting the concept that asthma and SCD are separate co-morbid conditions includes a similar prevalence of asthma between children with SCD and those in the general population and the observation that asthma is inherited in a familial pattern in the families of children with SCD. In contrast, there is significant evidence that asthma-like features may be associated with SCD without a diagnosis of asthma, including a higher than expected prevalence of airway hyper-responsiveness and obstructive lung disease. Regardless of whether SCD and asthma are distinct or overlapping co-morbid conditions, we recommend a systematic and complete evaluation of asthma when the diagnosis is suspected or when patients have multiple episodes of pain or ACS.
    Hematology 01/2009; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a common complication and reason for hospital admission in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). It is also the most common cause of death in this patient population. Most of the time, the trigger for ACS in an individual patient cannot be identified. However, although infection is the most common identifiable cause for ACS, other important triggers are vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and asthma. This comprehensive review will focus on the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, complications and treatment available to manage ACS. But importantly, this review will highlight new possible etiologies, with the goal of improving oxygenation and, therefore, a reduction in sickling and lung damage in this patient population.
    European Journal Of Haematology 05/2011; 87(3):191-207. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality (MacLean et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:1055–1059, 2008; Klings et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1264–1269, 2006; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2009). Despite this recognition, predictive markers of lung dysfunction progression remain elusive (Klings et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1264–1269, 2006; Platt et al. N Engl J Med 330:1639–1644, 1994; Caboot et al. Curr Opin Pediatr 20:279–287, 2008; Field et al. Am J Hematol 83:574–576, 2008; Shirlo et al. Peadiatr Respir Review 12:78–82, 2011). This study was designed describe the longitudinal progression and identify specific markers that influence bronchial disease in SCD. Methods A retrospective, chart review of 89 patients with SCD was conducted. All patients underwent spirometry in conjunction with body plethysmography as part of routine care. Eleven lung function variables were assessed, five of which were selected to establish patterns of normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed obstructive-restrictive physiology (Klings et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173:1264–1269, 2006; Field et al. Am J Hematol 83:574–576, 2008). Results In the unadjusted model, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)% of predicted trended downward with age, while total lung capacity (TLC)% of predicted showed a bimodal distribution and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity corrected for hemoglobin (DLCOcor)% of predicted remained stable. Adjusting for acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes, medication status, and growth velocity (GV), the final model demonstrated that the downward trend between FEV1% of predicted with age was further influenced by the latter two factors. Conclusions Initial decline in FEV1% of predicted is associated with worsening pulmonary dysfunction over time. Independent of ACS episodes, the factors most influential on the progression of FEV1% predicted include the introduction of medications as well as the promotion of adequate prepubertal growth. Efforts to ensure normal prepubertal GV and treatment with bronchodilators, such as short-acting beta2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), should be considered at an early age to delay progression of pulmonary dysfunction.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 06/2014; 192(3). · 2.06 Impact Factor

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