Expression of prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP) in transurethral resection specimens of the prostate is predictive of histopathologic tumor stage in subsequent radical prostatectomies.
ABSTRACT Clinical management of incidental prostate cancer (IPC) remains challenging since its clinical course cannot be predicted by conventional histopathology. Aiming to define predictive factors in IPC, we correlated the immunohistochemically detected expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP), alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR, p504s), and androgen receptor in transurethral resection specimens with Gleason scores and histologic staging on the corresponding radicals in a cohort of 54 patients (mean age, 65.9 years; range, 49-80 years). PSAP expression showed a significant correlation with tumor staging (rho = -0.37; p = 0.02) but not with Gleason scores (rho = -0.06; p = 0.69). K-statistics revealed a highly significant moderate interobserver agreement concerning the evaluation of PSAP staining (K = 0.47; p < 0.001). In contrast, the other markers assessed failed to correlate with conventional histopathology. Therefore, PSAP might be predictive of tumor stage in IPC and represent a valuable adjunct for clinical decisions in terms of individual therapeutic management.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in men. In recent years, novel therapeutic options for PCa have been developed and studied extensively in clinical trials. Sipuleucel-T is the first cell-based immunotherapeutic vaccine for treatment of cancer. This vaccine consists of autologous mononuclear cells stimulated and loaded with an immunostimulatory fusion protein containing the prostate tumor antigen prostate acid posphatase. The choice of antigen might be key for the efficiency of cell-based immunotherapy. Depending on the treatment strategy, target antigens should be immunogenic, abundantly expressed by tumor cells, and preferably functionally important for the tumor to prevent loss of antigen expression. Autoimmune responses have been reported against several antigens expressed in the prostate, indicating that PCa is a suitable target for immunotherapy. In this review, we will discuss PCa antigens that exhibit immunogenic features and/or have been targeted in immunotherapeutic settings with promising results, and we highlight the hurdles and opportunities for cancer immunotherapy.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:191.
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ABSTRACT: The mainstay therapeutic strategy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to be androgen deprivation therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy or androgen receptor targeting therapy in either sequence, or recently approved novel agents such as Radium 223. However, immunotherapy has also emerged as an option for the treatment of this disease following the approval of sipuleucel-T by the FDA in 2010. Immunotherapy is a rational approach for prostate cancer based on a body of evidence suggesting these cancers are inherently immunogenic and, most importantly, that immunological interventions can induce protective antitumour responses. Various forms of immunotherapy are currently being explored clinically, with the most common being cancer vaccines (dendritic-cell, viral, and whole tumour cell-based) and immune checkpoint inhibition. This review will discuss recent clinical developments of immune-based therapies for prostate cancer that have reached the phase III clinical trial stage. A perspective of how immunotherapy could be best employed within current treatment regimes to achieve most clinical benefits is also provided.BioMed Research International 09/2014; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.Asian Journal of Andrology 05/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor