Distribution of Pheromermis pachysoma (Mermithidae) Determined by Paratenic Invertebrate Hosts.

Journal of nematology (Impact Factor: 1.08). 08/1981; 13(3):421-4.
Source: PubMed


Available from: George Poinar, Sep 20, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: No practical methods are currently available for area‐wide, long‐term control of social wasps in New Zealand. Pathogens have received little attention as potential control agents. Records from wasps of the genera Vespula, Vespa, and Dolicho‐vespula and their associated nest material include 50 fungal, 12 bacterial, 5–7 nematode, 4 protozoan, and 2 viral species, although few have been confirmed through bioassay as pathogens of these wasp species. Despite few naturally‐occurring host‐specific pathogens and records of diseased colonies, wasps are susceptible to generalist insect diseases in bioassays. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Metarhizium, and Beauveria have been confirmed through bioassay as Vespiniae pathogens, as have the bacteria Serratia marcescens and Bacillus thuringiensis, and nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Steinernema (= Neoaplectana) sp., S. feltiae, S. carpocapsae and Pheromermis vesparum. Several of the pathogens listed here provide a resource from which inundative control agents might be developed, but none have potential as classical self sustaining control agents that can be transferred from generation to generation. As few studies have systematically searched for pathogens, it is likely other candidates suitable for use as control agents may be found.
    New Zealand Journal of Zoology 09/1999; 26(3):179-190. DOI:10.1080/03014223.1999.9518188 · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ants can serve as developmental, definitive, intermediate, or carrier hosts of a variety of nematodes. Parasitic ant nematodes include members of the families Mermithidae, Tetradonematidae, Allantonematidae, Seuratidae, Physalopteridae, Steinernematidae, and Heterorhabditidae. Those nematodes that are phoretically associated with ants, internally or externally, are represented by the Rhabditidae, Diplogastridae, and Panagrolaimidae. Fossils of mermithids, tetradonematids, allantonematids, and diplogastrids associated with ants show the evolutionary history of these relationships, some of which date back to the Eocene (40 mya).
    Psyche A Journal of Entomology 01/2012; 2012(2). DOI:10.1155/2012/192017
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany), becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences) to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids) most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species.
    PeerJ 05/2015; 3. DOI:10.7717/peerj.947 · 2.11 Impact Factor