Inducible Expression of Active Protein Phosphatase-1 Inhibitor-1 Enhances Basal Cardiac Function and Protects Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0575, USA.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 04/2009; 104(8):1012-20. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.189811
Source: PubMed


Ischemic heart disease, which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world, is invariably characterized by impaired cardiac function and disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis. Because enhanced inhibitor-1 (I-1) activity has been suggested to preserve Ca(2+) cycling, we sought to define whether increases in I-1 activity in the adult heart may ameliorate contractile dysfunction and cellular injury in the face of an ischemic insult. To this end, we generated an inducible transgenic mouse model that enabled temporally controlled expression of active I-1 (T35D). Active I-1 expression in the adult heart elicited significant enhancement of contractile function, associated with preferential phospholamban phosphorylation and enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-transport. Further phosphoproteomic analysis revealed alterations in proteins associated with energy production and protein synthesis, possibly to support the increased metabolic demands of the hyperdynamic hearts. Importantly, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury, active I-1 expression augmented contractile function and recovery. Further examination revealed that the infarct region and apoptotic as well as necrotic injuries were significantly attenuated by enhanced I-1 activity. These cardioprotective effects were associated with suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. The present findings indicate that increased I-1 activity in the adult heart enhances Ca(2+) cycling and improves mechanical recovery, as well as cell survival after an ischemic insult, suggesting that active I-1 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in myocardial infarction.

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    • "Referent to the first one, Yang et al. (2006) demonstrated that the protective effect of chronic CaMKII inhibition in AC3-I mice was lost, when they were interbred with PLNKO mice and submitted to myocardial infarction, supporting a detrimental effect of enhancing of SR Ca2+ uptake. Referent to the second possibility, several studies demonstrated that accelerating SR Ca2+ uptake by different means (i.e., overexpressing SERCA1a, with higher kinetics than SERCA2a, or expressing a repressor of PLN activity, PP1 inhibitor-1), alleviated post-ischemic cardiac injury (Talukder et al., 2007, 2008; Nicolaou et al., 2009), supporting a beneficial effect of accelerating SR Ca2+ uptake. A possible clue to explain these controversial findings is given by results showing that proteins, different from PLN, may be involved in the cascade by which CaMKII activity is deleterious in I/R. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholamban (PLN) is a phosphoprotein in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that is a reversible regulator of the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) activity and cardiac contractility. Dephosphorylated PLN inhibits SERCA2a and PLN phosphorylation, at either Ser16 by PKA or Thr17 by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), reverses this inhibition. Through this mechanism, PLN is a key modulator of SR Ca2+ uptake, Ca2+ load, contractility, and relaxation. PLN phosphorylation is also the main determinant of β1-adrenergic responses in the heart. Although phosphorylation of Thr17 by CaMKII contributes to this effect, its role is subordinate to the PKA-dependent increase in cytosolic Ca2+, necessary to activate CaMKII. Furthermore, the effects of PLN and its phosphorylation on cardiac function are subject to additional regulation by its interacting partners, the anti-apoptotic HAX-1 protein and Gm or the anchoring unit of protein phosphatase 1. Regulation of PLN activity by this multimeric complex becomes even more important in pathological conditions, characterized by aberrant Ca2+-cycling. In this scenario, CaMKII-dependent PLN phosphorylation has been associated with protective effects in both acidosis and ischemia/reperfusion. However, the beneficial effects of increasing SR Ca2+ uptake through PLN phosphorylation may be lost or even become deleterious, when these occur in association with alterations in SR Ca2+ leak. Moreover, a major characteristic in human and experimental heart failure (HF) is depressed SR Ca2+ uptake, associated with decreased SERCA2a levels and dephosphorylation of PLN, leading to decreased SR Ca2+ load and impaired contractility. Thus, the strategy of altering SERCA2a and/or PLN levels or activity to restore perturbed SR Ca2+ uptake is a potential therapeutic tool for HF treatment. We will review here the role of CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of PLN at Thr17 on cardiac function under physiological and pathological conditions.
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    • "In that study, overexpression of I-1c resulted in a significant improvement in cardiac function and associated increases in PLN phosphorylation and SERCA2a activity. Furthermore, increased I-1 activity significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury via suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses (37). Collectively, these results indicate that I-1 is an endogenous inotropic molecule that inhibits PP1; thus, overexpression of I-1 may be a valuable therapy for the treatment of heart failure. "
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