Trophoblast stem cells: Models for investigating trophectoderm differentiation and placental development
ABSTRACT The placenta is an ephemeral organ containing diverse populations of trophoblasts that are all derived from the embryonic trophectoderm but have morphological, functional, and molecular diversity within and across species. In hemochorial placentation, these cells play especially important roles, interfacing with and modifying the cells of the maternal decidua. Within the rapidly growing placenta, it has been shown that there are trophoblast stem cells well characterized in the mouse and postulated but not well understood in primates. This review will discuss the characteristics of candidates for human and nonhuman primate trophoblast stem cells, present the diverse methods of their generation, and propose future prospects for experimental systems in which they can shed light on developmental and pathophysiological processes in human pregnancy.
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- "These are similar culture conditions as required for the derivation and propagation of mTS lines (Yamanaka et al., 2006) and mEpiSC lines (Brons et al., 2007; Tesar et al., 2007). The derivation of stable human XEN and TS lines has not yet been reported either after single blastomere plating or after blastocyst plating (Douglas et al., 2009). "
ABSTRACT: During human pre-implantation development the totipotent zygote divides and undergoes a number of changes that lead to the first lineage differentiation in the blastocyst displaying trophectoderm and inner cell mass on day 5. The trophectoderm is a differentiated epithelium needed for implantation and the inner cell mass (ICM) forms the embryo proper and serves as a source for pluripotent embryonic stem cells. The blastocyst implants around day 7. The second lineage differentiation occurs in the ICM after implantation resulting in specification of primitive endoderm and epiblast. Knowledge on human pre-implantation development is limited due to ethical and legal restrictions on embryo research and scarcity of materials. Studies in the human are mainly descriptive and lack functional evidence. Most information on embryo development is obtained from animal models and embryonic stem cell cultures and should be extrapolated with caution. This paper reviews totipotency and the molecular determinants and pathways involved in lineage segregation in the human embryo, as well as the role of embryonic genome activation, cell cycle features and epigenetic modifications.Molecular Human Reproduction 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/molehr/gau027 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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- "While human term placentas are easily obtained, they do not provide invasive EVT. In contrast, first trimester placental tissue will form EVT in vitro, but is not widely available, and cannot be maintained long term in culture  . Immortalized cell lines with EVT properties such as HTR8 (HTR-8/SVneo) , TEV-1 , Swan-71 , TCL1  and SGHPL-4  are widely used, but these cells are already committed to the EVT lineage and preclude investigation of their origins  . "
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia and other placental pathologies are characterized by a lack of spiral artery remodeling associated with insufficient invasion by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT). Because trophoblast invasion occurs in early pregnancy when access to human placental tissue is limited, there is a need for model systems for the study of trophoblast differentiation and invasion. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) treated with BMP4- differentiate to trophoblast, and express HLA-G, a marker of EVT. The goals of the present study were to further characterize the HLA-G(+) cells derived from BMP4-treated hESC, and determine their suitability as a model. METHODS: HESC were treated with BMP4 under 4% or 20% oxygen and tested in Matrigel invasion chambers. Both BMP4-treated hESC and primary human placental cells were separated into HLA-G(+) and HLA-G(-)/TACSTD2(+) populations with immunomagnetic beads and expression profiles analyzed by microarray. RESULTS: There was a 10-fold increase in invasion when hESC were BMP4-treated. There was also an independent, stimulatory effect of oxygen on this process. Invasive cells expressed trophoblast marker KRT7, and the majority were also HLA-G(+). Gene expression profiles revealed that HLA-G(+), BMP4-treated hESC were similar to, but distinct from, HLA-G(+) cells isolated from first trimester placentas. Whereas HLA-G(+) and HLA-G(-) cells from first trimester placentas had highly divergent gene expression profiles, HLA-G(+) and HLA-G(-) cells from BMP4-treated hESC had somewhat similar profiles, and both expressed genes characteristic of early trophoblast development. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that hESC treated with BMP4 provide a model for studying transition to the EVT lineage.Placenta 04/2013; 34(7). DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2013.03.016 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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- "CDX2 interactions with POU5F1 appear essential for trophectoderm differentiation in mouse embryos (Niwa et al., 2005). CDX2 is observed in rhesus blastocysts (Douglas et al., 2009), but our study is the first to quantify the mRNA level of CDX2 in morulae and later blastocysts, embryonic stages in which differentiation is occurring, as well as during early differentiation of ESCs. Our data support the hypothesis that CDX2 is involved in differentiation in primate as well as murine early embyo development. "
ABSTRACT: Two essential aspects of mammalian development are the progressive specialization of cells toward different lineages, and the maintenance of progenitor cells that will give rise to the differentiated components of each tissue and also contribute new cells as older cells die or become injured. The transition from totipotentiality to pluripotentiality, to multipotentiality, to monopotentiality, and then to differentiation is a continuous process during development. The ontological relationship between these different stages is not well understood. We report for the first time an ontological survey of expression of 45 putative "stemness" and "pluripotency" genes in rhesus monkey oocytes and preimplantation stage embryos, and comparison to the expression in the inner cell mass, trophoblast stem cells, and a rhesus monkey (ORMES6) embryonic stem cell line. Our results reveal that some of these genes are not highly expressed in all totipotent or pluripotent cell types. Some are predominantly maternal mRNAs present in oocytes and embryos before transcriptional activation, and diminishing before the blastocyst stage. Others are well expressed in morulae or early blastocysts, but are poorly expressed in later blastocysts or ICMs. Also, some of the genes employed to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells (iPS genes) appear unlikely to play major roles as stemness or pluripotency genes in normal embryos.Gene Expression Patterns 02/2011; 11(3-4):285-98. DOI:10.1016/j.gep.2011.02.001 · 1.36 Impact Factor