Conjugated linoleic acid isomers' roles in the regulation of PPAR-gamma and NF-kappaB DNA binding and subsequent expression of antioxidant enzymes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have shown health benefits. Because CLA isomers may act as activators for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and may induce antioxidant enzymes, this study was conducted to examine the effects of CLA isomers on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and catalase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with graded concentrations of the 9-cis, 11-trans or the 10-trans, 12-cis-CLA isomer for 24 h.
The 9-cis, 11-trans-CLA treatments resulted in increases in transcription factor DNA binding activities and expression of antioxidant enzymes at 0-25 micromol/L and an increase in lipid peroxidation only at the lowest concentrations (5 micromol/L). The 10-trans, 12-cis-CLA treatments resulted in increases in transcription factor DNA binding activities at 0-25 micromol/L and highest levels of mRNA of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase protein, and lipid peroxidation only at the lowest concentrations (5 micromol/L). The 9-cis, 11-trans-CLA treatments produced expression of antioxidant enzymes, except catalase protein, that were positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. Positive correlations were found between expression of antioxidant enzymes, except catalase protein, and lipid peroxidation for 10-trans, 12-cis-CLA treatments. Although CLA isomers exhibit mostly stimulatory effects in expression of antioxidant enzymes, interestingly, the lowest concentrations of both CLA isomers resulted in increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels.
An understanding of the optimal concentrations of CLA isomers, which stimulate the benefits of antioxidant enzyme induction, may require careful CLA titration to determine predictable and dependable therapeutic strategies against adverse effects, such as pro-oxidants.
- SourceAvailable from: csuchico.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid [linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6] commonly found in beef, lamb and dairy products. The most abundant isomer of CLA in nature is the cis-9, trans-11 (c9t11) isomer. Commercially available CLA is usually a 1:1 mixture of c9t11 and trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12) isomers with other isomers as minor components. Conjugated LA isomer mixture and c9t11 and t10c12 isomers alone have been attributed to provide several health benefits that are largely based on animal and in vitro studies. Conjugated LA has been attributed many beneficial effects in prevention of atherosclerosis, different types of cancer, hypertension and also known to improve immune function. More recent literature with availability of purified c9t11 and t10c12 isomers suggests that t10c12 is the sole isomer involved in antiadipogenic role of CLA. Other studies in animals and cell lines suggest that the two isomers may act similarly or antagonistically to alter cellular function and metabolism, and may also act through different signaling pathways. The effect of CLA and individual isomers shows considerable variation between different strains (BALB/C mice vs. C57BL/6 mice) and species (e.g., rats vs. mice). The dramatic effects seen in animal studies have not been reflected in some clinical studies. This review comprehensively discusses the recent studies on the effects of CLA and individual isomers on body composition, cardiovascular disease, bone health, insulin resistance, mediators of inflammatory response and different types of cancer, obtained from both in vitro and animal studies. This review also discusses the latest available information from clinical studies in these areas of research.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 01/2007; 17(12):789-810. · 4.55 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two purified isomers of CLA (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA) on the weights and FA compositions of hepatic TG, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and FFA. Eight-week-old female mice (n = 6/group) were fed either a control diet or diets supplemented with 0.5% c9,t11-CLA or t10,c12-CLA isomers for 8 wk. Weights of liver total lipids and those of individual lipid fractions did not differ between the control and the c9,t11-CLA groups. Livers from animals fed the t10, c12-CLA diet contained four times more lipids than those of the control group; this was mainly due to an increase in the TG fractions (fivefold), but cholesterol (threefold), cholesterol esters (threefold), and FFA (twofold) were also significantly increased. Although c9,t11-CLA did not significantly alter the weights of liver lipids when compared with the control group, its intake was associated with significant reductions in the weight percentage (wt% of total FAME) of 18:1n-9 and 18:1n-7 in the TG fraction and with significant increases in the weight percentage of 18:2n-6 in the TG, cholesterol ester, and phospholipid fractions. On the other hand, t10,c12-CLA intake was linked with a significant increase in the weight percentage of 18:1n-9 and a decrease in that of 18:2n-6 in all lipid fractions. These changes may be the result of alterations in the activity of delta9-desaturase (stearoyl CoA desaturase) and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of 18:2n-6. Thus, the two isomers differed not only in their effects on the weights of total liver lipids and lipid fractions but also on the FA profile of the lipid fractions.Lipids 03/2004; 39(2):135-41. · 2.56 Impact Factor
- Endocrine Reviews 11/1999; 20(5):649-88. · 14.87 Impact Factor