Trends in postoperative sepsis: are we improving outcomes?
ABSTRACT Each year, as many as two million operations are complicated by surgical site infections in the United States, and surgical patients account for 30% of patients with sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine recent trends in sepsis incidence, severity, and mortality rate after surgical procedures and to evaluate changes in the pattern of septicemia pathogens over time.
Analysis of the 1990-2006 hospital discharge data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) for New Jersey. Patients >or= 18 years who developed sepsis after surgery were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes as defined by the Patient Safety Indicator "Postoperative Sepsis" developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Severe sepsis was defined as sepsis complicated by organ dysfunction.
A total of 1,276,451 surgery discharges (537,843 elective [42.1%] and 738,608 non-elective [57.9%] procedures) were identified. After elective surgery, 5,865 patients (1.09%) developed postoperative sepsis, of whom 2,778 (0.52%) had severe sepsis. The incidence of postoperative sepsis after elective surgery increased from 0.67% to 1.74% (p < 0.0001) and severe sepsis after elective surgery from 0.22% to 1.12% (p < 0.0001). The sepsis mortality rate for elective procedures showed no significant change over time. The proportion of severe sepsis after elective cases increased from 32.9% to 64.6% (p < 0.0002). The rates of postoperative sepsis (4.24%) and severe sepsis (2.28%) were significantly greater for non-elective than for elective procedures (p < 0.0002). Non-elective surgical procedures had a significant increase in the rates of postoperative sepsis (3.74% to 4.51%) and severe sepsis (1.79% to 3.15%) over time (p < 0.0001) with the proportion of severe sepsis increasing from 47.7% to 69.9% (p < 0.0002). The in-hospital mortality rate after non-elective surgery decreased from 37.9% to 29.8% (p < 0.0001).
Sepsis and death were more likely after non-elective than elective surgery. Sepsis and severe sepsis has increased significantly after elective and non-elective procedures over the last 17 years. The hospital mortality rate was reduced significantly after non-elective surgery, but no improvements were found for elective surgery patients who developed sepsis. Disparities in age, sex, and ethnicity and the development of postoperative surgical sepsis were found. Population-based studies may assist in defining temporal trends, disparities, and outcomes in sepsis not elucidated in smaller studies.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Viktor Y Dombrovskiy, Feb 18, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The last two decades have seen an unprecedented growth in initiatives aimed to improve patient safety. For the most part, however, evidence of their impact remains controversial. At the same time, the healthcare industry has experienced an also unprecedented growth in the amount and variety of available electronic data. In this paper, we provide a review of the use of routinely collected electronic data in the identification, analysis and surveillance of temporal patterns of patient safety. Two important temporal patterns of the safety of hospitalised patients were identified and discussed: long-term trends related to changes in clinical practice and healthcare policy; and shorter term patterns related to variations in workforce and resources. We found that consistency in reporting is intrinsically related to availability of large-scale, fit-for-purpose data. Consistent reported trends of patient harms included an increase in the incidence of post-operative sepsis and a decrease in central-line associated bloodstream infections. Improvement in the treatment of specific diseases, such as cardiac conditions, has also been demonstrated. Linkage of hospital data with other datasets provides essential temporal information about errors, as well as information about unsuspected system deficiencies. It has played an important role in the measurement and analysis of the effects of off-hours hospital operation. Measuring temporal patterns of patient safety is still inadequate with electronic health records not yet playing an important role. Patient safety interventions should not be implemented without a strategy for continuous monitoring of their effect.01/2015; 3(Suppl 1 HISA Big Data in Biomedicine and Healthcare 2013 Con):S2. DOI:10.1186/2047-2501-3-S1-S2
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ABSTRACT: Premature mortality is a public health concern that can be quantified as years of potential life lost (YPLL). Studying premature mortality from in-hospital mortality can help guide hospital initiatives and resource allocation. This paper identified the diagnosis categories associated with in-hospital deaths that account for the highest YPLL and their trends over time. Retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), 1988-2010. Using the NIS, YPLL on patients hospitalized in the United States from 1988 to 2010 was calculated. Hospitalizations were categorized by related principal diagnoses using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) single-level Clinical Classification Software (CCS) definitions. Between 1988 and 2010, total in-hospital estimated mortality of 20,154,186 people accounted for 198,417,257 YPLL (9.84 YPLL per in-hospital mortality; 8,626,837 estimated annual mean YPLL). The ten highest YPLL diagnosis categories accounted for 51% of the overall YPLL. The liveborn disease category (i.e., in-hospital live births) was the most common principal diagnosis and accounted for the highest YPLL at 1,070,053. The septicemia category accounted for the second highest YPLL at 548,922. The highest in-hospital mortality rate (20.8%) was associated with adult respiratory failure/insufficiency/arrest. The highest estimated in-hospital annual mean deaths occurred in patients with pneumonia at 69,134. For all in-hospital mortality, the inflation adjusted total in-hospital charges per YPLL was highest for acute myocardial infarction at $9292 per YPLL. Using YPLL, a framework has been provided to compare the impact of premature in-hospital mortality from dissimilar diseases. The methodology and results may be used to help guide further investigation of hospital quality initiatives and resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Public Health 02/2015; 129(2). DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2014.11.011 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HYPOTHESIS In July 2011, surgical interns were prohibited from being on call from home by the new residency review committee guidelines on work hours. In support of the new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions, we expected that a period of intern home call would correlate with increased rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. DESIGN Prospective cohort. SETTING University-affiliated tertiary Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PATIENTS All patients identified in the Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database who underwent an operation performed by general, vascular, urologic, or cardiac surgery services between fiscal years (FYs) 1999 and 2010 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES During FYs 1999-2003, the first call for all patients went to an in-hospital intern. In the subsequent period (FYs 2004-2010), the first call went to an intern on home call. Thirty-day unadjusted morbidity and mortality rates and risk-adjusted observed to expected ratios were analyzed by univariate analysis and joinpoint regression, respectively. RESULTS Unadjusted overall morbidity rates decreased between 1999-2003 and 2004-2010 (12.14% to 10.19%, P = .003). The risk-adjusted morbidity observed to expected ratios decreased at a uniform annual percentage change of -6.03% (P < .001). Unadjusted overall mortality rates also decreased between the 2 periods (1.76% to 1.26%; P = .05). There was no significant change in the risk-adjusted mortality observed to expected ratios during the study. CONCLUSIONS The institution of an intern home call schedule was not associated with increased rates of postoperative morbidity or mortality.JAMA SURGERY 04/2013; 148(4):347-351. DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.1063 · 4.30 Impact Factor