Mortality Results from a Randomized Prostate-Cancer Screening Trial

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 04/2009; 360(13):1310-9. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810696
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of screening with prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examination on the rate of death from prostate cancer is unknown. This is the first report from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial on prostate-cancer mortality.
From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 76,693 men at 10 U.S. study centers to receive either annual screening (38,343 subjects) or usual care as the control (38,350 subjects). Men in the screening group were offered annual PSA testing for 6 years and digital rectal examination for 4 years. The subjects and health care providers received the results and decided on the type of follow-up evaluation. Usual care sometimes included screening, as some organizations have recommended. The numbers of all cancers and deaths and causes of death were ascertained.
In the screening group, rates of compliance were 85% for PSA testing and 86% for digital rectal examination. Rates of screening in the control group increased from 40% in the first year to 52% in the sixth year for PSA testing and ranged from 41 to 46% for digital rectal examination. After 7 years of follow-up, the incidence of prostate cancer per 10,000 person-years was 116 (2820 cancers) in the screening group and 95 (2322 cancers) in the control group (rate ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.29). The incidence of death per 10,000 person-years was 2.0 (50 deaths) in the screening group and 1.7 (44 deaths) in the control group (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.70). The data at 10 years were 67% complete and consistent with these overall findings.
After 7 to 10 years of follow-up, the rate of death from prostate cancer was very low and did not differ significantly between the two study groups. ( number, NCT00002540.)

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Available from: Grant Izmirlian, Aug 10, 2015
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    • "The standard of care is therefore to achieve an early diagnosis in patients with clinically significant prostate cancer (e.g., Gleason score ≥ 3 + 3). Largest series concerning prostate cancer screening by use of PSA have shown no significant effect on the reduction of mortality [2] [3]. Clinically significant prostate cancer detection using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is not easy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using b-values of 1000 s/mm(2) and 2000 s/mm(2) at 3 Tesla (T) for the evaluation of clinically significant prostate cancer. Matherials and Methods. Seventy-eight prostate cancer patients underwent a 3T MRI scan followed by radical prostatectomy. DWI was performed using b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) and qualitatively analysed by two radiologists. ADC maps were obtained at b-values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm(2) and quantitatively analyzed in consensus. Results. For diagnosis of 78 prostate cancers the accuracy of DWI for the young reader was significantly greater at b = 2000 s/mm(2) for the peripheral zone (PZ) but not for the transitional zone (TZ). For the experienced reader, DWI did not show significant differences in accuracy between b-values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm(2). The quantitative analysis in the PZ and TZ was substantially superimposable between the two b-values, albeit with a higher accuracy with a b-value of 2000 s/mm(2). Conclusions. With a b-value of 2000 s/mm(2) at 3T both readers differentiated clinical significant cancer from benign tissue; higher b-values can be helpful for the less experienced readers.
    02/2014; 2014:868269. DOI:10.1155/2014/868269
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    • "Indeed, research on screening reported that Black men were less likely to get prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening than their White counterparts (Carpenter et al., 2010; Etzioni et al., 2008). Despite this argument, there is an ongoing debate over the extent to which PSA screening contributes to the decline in prostate cancer mortality (Andriole et al., 2009; Barry, 2009; Schröder et al., 2009; Schwartz et al., 2009). For instance, after completing an evidence review, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force decided to recommend against screening for PSA, concluding that there is moderate or high certainty that the service has no net benefit or that the harms outweigh the benefits (Chou et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: To identify individual and contextual factors contributing to overall mortality among men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Florida, a random sample of patients (between October 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007) was taken from the Florida Cancer Data System. Patient's demographic and clinical information were obtained from the Florida Cancer Data System. Comorbidity was computed following the Elixhauser Index method. Census-tract-level socioeconomic status and farm house presence were extracted from Census 2000 and linked to patient data. The ratio of urologists and radiation oncologists to prostate cancer cases at the county level was computed. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to identify significance of individuals and contextual factors in relation to overall mortality. A total of 18,042 patients were identified, among whom 2,363 died. No racial difference was found in our study. Being older at diagnosis, unmarried, current smoker, uninsured, diagnosed at late stage, with undifferentiated, poorly differentiated, or unknown tumor grade were significantly associated with higher odds of overall mortality. Living in a low-income area was significantly associated with higher odds of mortality (p = .0404). After adjusting for age, stage, and tumor grade, patients who received hormonal, combination of radiation with hormone therapy, and no definitive treatment had higher odds of mortality compared with those who underwent surgery only. A large number of comorbidities were associated with higher odds of mortality. Although disease-specific mortality was not examined, our findings suggest the importance of careful considerations of patient sociodemographic characteristics and their coexisting conditions in treatment decision making, which in turn affects mortality.
    American journal of men's health 12/2013; 8(4). DOI:10.1177/1557988313512862 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, no all-cause mortality reduction was found [6] [7], and PSA screening was associated with a significant overdiagnosis of 50% [8]—an adverse effect which is more common than screening for breast, colorectal, or cervical cancer [5] [9]. The American trial PLCO likewise has not found a mortality reduction [10]. A population-based cohort study has, however, found that the cumulative survival after PC in Denmark has increased in the period between 1998 and 2009. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The use of prostate-specific antigen test has markedly increased in Danish general practice in the last decade. Despite the national guidelines advice against PSA screening, opportunistic screening is supposed to be the primary reason for this increased number of PSA tests performed. Aims. Based on the increase in the amount of PSA conducted, we aimed to analyse how GPs in Denmark use the PSA test. Methods. A self-administrated questionnaire concerning symptomatic and asymptomatic patient cases was developed based on the national and international guidelines and the extensive literature review, and an in-depth interview conducted with a GP was performed. Results. None of the GPs would do a PSA measurement for an asymptomatic 76-year-old man. For asymptomatic 55- and 42-year-old men, respectively, 21.9% and 18.6% of GPs would measure PSA. Patient request and concern could be potential reasons for measuring PSA for asymptomatic patients. Almost all GPs stated that a PSA measurement is indicated for symptomatic 49- and 78-year-old men, respectively, 98.9% and 93.8%. Conclusion. Opportunistic PC screening is being performed in general practice to a high degree. Hence, current guidelines are not followed, and intense focus should be on more effective implementation strategies in order to avoid overuse of PSA.
    11/2013; 2013:540707. DOI:10.1155/2013/540707
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