Article

PGC-1alpha/beta induced expression partially compensates for respiratory chain defects in cells from patients with mitochondrial disorders.

Department of Neurology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
Human Molecular Genetics (Impact Factor: 6.68). 04/2009; 18(10):1805-12. DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddp093
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC) family are potent inducers of mitochondrial biogenesis. We have tested the potential effect of increased mitochondrial biogenesis in cells derived from patients harboring oxidative phosphorylation defects due to either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA mutations. We found that the PGC-1alpha and/or PGC-1beta expression improved mitochondrial respiration in cells harboring a complex III or IV deficiency as well as in transmitochondrial cybrids harboring mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stroke A3243G tRNA((Leu)UUR) gene mutation. The respiratory function improvement was found to be associated with increased levels of mitochondrial components per cell, although this increase was not homogeneous. These results reinforce the concept that increased mitochondrial biogenesis is a promising venue for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases.

1 Follower
 · 
155 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abnormal structure and function of astrocytes have been observed within the lamina cribrosa region of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Glutamate excitotoxicity-mediated mitochondrial alteration has been implicated in experimental glaucoma. However, the relationships among glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial alteration and ONH astrocytes in the pathogenesis of glaucoma remain unknown. We found that functional N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NRs) are present in human ONH astrocytes and that glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes have increased expression levels of NRs and the glutamate aspartate transporter. Glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes exhibit mitochondrial fission that is linked to increased expression of dynamin-related protein 1 and its phosphorylation at Serine 616. In BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP or Thy1-CFP transgenic mice, NMDA treatment induced axon loss as well as hypertrophic morphology and mitochondrial fission in astrocytes of the glial lamina. In human ONH astrocytes, NMDA treatment in vitro triggered mitochondrial fission by decreasing mitochondrial length and number, thereby reducing mitochondrial volume density. However, blocking excitotoxicity by memantine (MEM) prevented these alterations by increasing mitochondrial length, number and volume density. In glaucomatous DBA/2J (D2) mice, blocking excitotoxicity by MEM inhibited the morphological alteration as well as increased mitochondrial number and volume density in astrocytes of the glial lamina. However, blocking excitotoxicity decreased autophagosome/autolysosome volume density in both astrocytes and axons in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings provide evidence that blocking excitotoxicity prevents ONH astrocyte dysfunction in glaucomatous neurodegeneration by increasing mitochondrial fission, increasing mitochondrial volume density and length, and decreasing autophagosome/autolysosome formation. GLIA 2014;00:000–000
    Glia 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/glia.22781 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sustained integrity of the mitochondrial population of a cell is critical for maintained cell health, and disruption of that integrity is linked strongly to human disease, especially to the neurodegenerative diseases. These are appalling diseases causing untold levels of suffering for which treatment is woefully inadequate. Understanding the mechanisms that disturb mitochondrial homeostasis may therefore prove key to identification of potential new therapeutic pathways. Mechanisms causing mitochondrial dysfunction include the acute catastrophic loss of function caused by opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which collapses bioenergetic function and initiates cell death. This is best characterised in ischaemic reperfusion injury, although it may also contribute to a number of other diseases. More insidious disturbances of mitochondrial homeostasis may result from impaired balance in the pathways that promote mitochondrial repair (biogenesis) and pathways that remove dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy). Impaired coordination between these processes is emerging as a key feature of a number of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. Here we review pathways that may prove to be valuable potential therapeutic targets, focussing on the molecular mechanisms that govern the coordination of these processes and their involvement in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Bioenergetics 09/2014; 47(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s10863-014-9576-6 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electron flux in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is determined by the superassembly of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Different superassemblies are dedicated to receive electrons derived from NADH or FADH2, allowing cells to adapt to the particular NADH/FADH2 ratio generated from available fuel sources. When several fuels are available, cells adapt to the fuel best suited to their type or functional status (e.g., quiescent versus proliferative). We show that an appropriate proportion of superassemblies can be achieved by increasing CII activity through phosphorylation of the complex II catalytic subunit FpSDH. This phosphorylation is mediated by the tyrosine-kinase Fgr, which is activated by hydrogen peroxide. Ablation of Fgr or mutation of the FpSDH target tyrosine abolishes the capacity of mitochondria to adjust metabolism upon nutrient restriction, hypoxia/reoxygenation, and T cell activation, demonstrating the physiological relevance of this adaptive response.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
48 Downloads
Available from
May 31, 2014