Researchers have completed several studies on the effects of density on violence in prisons and jails, but little work has been done on density's impact on direct supervision jails. Direct supervision facilities, also known as new generation jails, were created by the Federal Bureau of Prisons with the goal of reducing violence, suicide and disorder. Given the crowded conditions in most jails across the country, it is important to determine the impact, if any, that density has on the operations of these jails. The current study involves an analysis of density on assaults in nearly 150 direct supervision jails. The results indicate that neither spatial nor social density are predictors of violence in these jails. Several direct supervision jail characteristics are also included in the analysis, but they are not associated with reported assaults. The racial composition of inmates, location of the jail, and number of inmates each officer is permitted to supervise predicted assaults.
"The research findings, which revealed high levels of noise between 74 and 94 dB, led Gusten to conclude that high levels of noise correlate to high levels of anger among incarcerated populations (Gusten, 1977). Finally, Lahm (2008) and Tartaro and Levy (2007), who analyzed inmate-on-inmate assaults, inmate-on-staff assaults, and overall levels of violence and misconduct in prison, and Chemtob, Novaco, Hamada, Gross, and Smith (1997) and Novaco and Chemtob (1998), who analyzed escalation of negative behaviors such as aggression and criminality in prison, found correlations between these behaviors and levels of anger. 1 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Listening to relaxing music was found to reduce state anxiety and state anger among various populations. Nonetheless, the impact of relaxing music in prisons has not yet been studied. The current study examines the impact of relaxing music on levels of state anxiety and state anger among a random sample of 48 criminal prisoners. Main findings are as follows: (a) level of state anxiety decreased among the treatment group compared with the comparison group and (b) level of state anger decreased among the treatment group compared with the comparison group. Findings are discussed in light of other studies that have shown positive effects of exposure to relaxing music on levels of anxiety and anger among other populations. The final part of the study provides practical recommendations for prison administrators regarding implementation of programs of relaxing music in various prison facilities.
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 11/2013; 59(4). DOI:10.1177/0306624X13511587 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the growth in and debate about super-maximum security housing, there exist few studies of inmates' experiences or placement in supermax incarceration. The lack of research on this new type of confinement assumes particular salience given criticisms that such confinement is excessive, that placement in it is arbitrary, and that it may have adverse effects on reentry into society. The goal of this article was to inform efforts to understand how supermax housing is used and to contribute to policy debates about this housing. To this end, it used data from the Florida Department of Corrections to investigate several dimensions of the supermax experience. These included the frequency of placement into supermax confinement, the duration of time spent in such confinement, and the timing of it relative to reentry back into society. In addition, the article explored factors, especially behavioral indicators, that may contribute to decisions to place inmates in supermaxes. The article concludes by discussing the study's findings and implications for research and policy.
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