Hypothermic storage of isolated human hepatocytes: a comparison between University of Wisconsin solution and a hypothermosol platform.
ABSTRACT Until now little is known about the functional integrity of human hepatocytes after hypothermic storage. In order to address this limitation, we evaluated several commercially available hypothermic preservation media for their abilities to protect freshly isolated hepatocytes during prolonged cold storage. Human hepatocytes were isolated from non-transplantable/rejected donor livers and resuspended in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution (UW), HypoThermosol-Base (HTS-Base), or HypoThermosol-FRS (HTS-FRS) with or without the addition of fetal bovine serum. Cells were stored at 4 degrees C for 24-72 h, and evaluated for hepatocyte viability (trypan blue exclusion, or labeling with fluorochromes), cell attachment, and function. The energy status of hepatocytes was evaluated by measurement of intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate. To determine whether the test cells expressed metabolic functions of freshly isolated cells, the activities of major phase I (cytochromes P450, FMO) and phase II (UGT, ST) drug-metabolizing enzymes were examined. Although hepatocytes are shown to be satisfactory after 24 h storage in all of the tested solutions, the cell viability, energy status, and xenobiotic metabolism following cold preservation in HTS-FRS was consistently and, in some cases, markedly higher when compared with other systems. The same metabolites for each of the tested substrates were detected in all groups of cells. Moreover, the use of HTS-FRS eliminates the need for serum in preservation solutions. HTS-FRS represents an improved solution compared to HTS-Base and UW for extending the shipping/storage time of human hepatocytes.
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ABSTRACT: The donor organ shortage is the largest problem in transplantation today and is one where organ preservation technology has an important role to play. Static storage of solid organs, especially of the kidney, continues to be the most common method employed for storage and transport of organs from deceased donors. However, the increase in organs obtained from expanded criteria donors and donors with cardiac death provide new challenges in crafting effective preservation methods for the future. This article reviews the current status of static hypothermic storage methods and discusses potential avenues for future exploitation of this technology as the available organ pool is expanded into the more marginal donor categories.Cryobiology 07/2010; 60(3-60). DOI:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2009.06.004 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the body of evidence that not only tryptophan and consequent 5-HT depletion, but also induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the detrimental effects of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. IDO is induced by interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, lipopolysaccharides and oxidative stress, factors that play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. TRYCATs, like kynurenine and quinolinic acid, are depressogenic and anxiogenic; activate oxidative pathways; cause mitochondrial dysfunctions; and have neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic effects that may lead to neurodegeneration. The TRYCAT pathway is also activated following induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) by glucocorticoids, which are elevated in depression. There is evidence that activation of IDO reduces plasma tryptophan and increases TRYCAT synthesis in depressive states and that TDO activation may play a role as well. The development of depressive symptoms during IFNα-based immunotherapy is strongly associated with IDO activation, increased production of detrimental TRYCATs and lowered levels of tryptophan. Women show greater IDO activation and TRYCAT production following immune challenge than men. In the early puerperium, IDO activation and TRYCAT production are associated with the development of affective symptoms. Clinical depression is accompanied by lowered levels of neuroprotective TRYCATs or increased levels or neurotoxic TRYCATs, and lowered plasma tryptophan, which is associated with indices of immune activation and glucocorticoid hypersecretion. Lowered tryptophan and increased TRYCATs induce T cell unresponsiveness and therefore may exert a negative feedback on the primary inflammatory response in depression. It is concluded that activation of the TRYCAT pathway by IDO and TDO may be associated with the development of depressive symptoms through tryptophan depletion and the detrimental effects of TRYCATs. Therefore, the TRYCAT pathway should be a new drug target in depression. Direct inhibitors of IDO are less likely to be useful drugs than agents, such as kynurenine hydroxylase inhibitors; drugs which block the primary immune response; compounds that increase the protective effects of kynurenic acid; and specific antioxidants that target IDO activation, the immune and oxidative pathways, and 5-HT as well.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 12/2010; 35(3):702-21. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.12.017 · 4.03 Impact Factor
Article: Stem cells in toxicity testingArchives of Toxicology 02/2011; 85(2):77-8. DOI:10.1007/s00204-011-0650-0 · 5.08 Impact Factor