The impact of nutritional fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation on early human adipose tissue development. Rationale and design of the INFAT study.
ABSTRACT Recent observational studies suggest that mean birth weight and body fat growth in the first year of life have increased continuously over the last decades. Both elevated birth weight and early fat mass are potential risk factors for childhood obesity. Experimental and limited clinical data suggest that the dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) during pregnancy is critical for early adipose tissue growth. The aim of this randomized controlled study is to examine the effect of the supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs and reduction in the n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet of pregnant women/breast-feeding mothers on adipose tissue growth in their newborns using various methods for the assessment of body fat mass. Measurement of skinfold thickness in the newborn is the primary outcome parameter. Two hundred and four pregnant women will be recruited before the 15th week of gestation and randomly assigned to either active intervention or an isocaloric control diet. This upcoming study will explore the potential of this dietary approach to limit early adipose tissue growth and may contribute to the development of a new strategy for the primary prevention of childhood obesity.
Article: Prenatal fatty acid status and child adiposity at age 3 y: results from a US pregnancy cohort.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early life may influence adiposity development. We examined the extent to which prenatal n-3 (omega-3) and n-6 (omega-6) PUFA concentrations were associated with childhood adiposity. In mother-child pairs in the Project Viva cohort, we assessed midpregnancy fatty acid intakes (n = 1120), maternal plasma PUFA concentrations (n = 227), and umbilical cord plasma PUFA concentrations (n = 302). We performed multivariable regression analyses to examine independent associations of n-3 PUFAs, including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA + EPA), n-6 PUFAs, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs, with child adiposity at age 3 y measured by the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses (SS + TR) and risk of obesity (body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex). Mean (±SD) DHA + EPA intake was 0.15 ± 0.14 g DHA + EPA/d, maternal plasma concentration was 1.9 ± 0.6%, and umbilical plasma concentration was 4.6 ± 1.2%. In children, SS + TR was 16.7 ± 4.3 mm, and 9.4% of children were obese. In the adjusted analysis, there was an association between each SD increase in DHA + EPA and lower child SS + TR [-0.31 mm (95% CI: -0.58, -0.04 mm) for maternal diet and -0.91 mm (95% CI: -1.63, -0.20 mm) for cord plasma] and lower odds of obesity [odds ratio (95% CI): 0.68 (0.50, 0.92) for maternal diet and 0.09 (0.02, 0.52) for cord plasma]. Maternal plasma DHA + EPA concentration was not significantly associated with child adiposity. A higher ratio of cord plasma n-6:n-3 PUFAs was associated with higher SS + TR and odds of obesity. An enhanced maternal-fetal n-3 PUFA status was associated with lower childhood adiposity.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2011; 93(4):780-8. · 6.67 Impact Factor