Identification of pro-angiogenic markers in blood vessels from stroked-affected brain tissue using laser-capture microdissection

SBCHS, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.
BMC Genomics (Impact Factor: 3.99). 02/2009; 10(1):113. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-113
Source: PubMed


Angiogenesis correlates with patient survival following acute ischaemic stroke, and survival of neurons is greatest in tissue undergoing angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is critical for the development of new microvessels and leads to re-formation of collateral circulation, reperfusion, enhanced neuronal survival and improved recovery.
Here, we have isolated active (CD105/Flt-1 positive) and inactive (CD105/Flt-1 minus (n=5) micro-vessel rich-regions from stroke-affected and contralateral tissue of patients using laser-capture micro-dissection. Areas were compared for pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression using targeted TaqMan microfluidity cards containing 46 genes and real-time PCR. Further analysis of key gene de-regulation was performed by immunohistochemistry to define localization and expression patterns of identified markers and de novo synthesis by human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC) was examined following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Our data revealed that seven pro-angiogenic genes were notably up-regulated in CD105 positive microvessel rich regions. These were, beta-catenin, neural cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), hepatocyte growth factor-alpha (HGF-alpha), monocyte chemottractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and and Tie-2 as well as c-kit. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong staining of MMP-2, HGF-alpha, MCP-1 and Tie-2 in stroke-associated regions of active remodeling in association with CD105 positive staining. In vitro, OGD stimulated production of Tie-2, MCP-1 and MMP-2 in HBMEC, demonstrated a de novo response to hypoxia.
In this work we have identified concurrent activation of key angiogenic molecules associated with endothelial cell migration, differentiation and tube-formation, vessel stabilization and stem cell homing mechanisms in areas of revascularization. Therapeutic stimulation of these processes in all areas of damaged tissue might improve morbidity and mortality from stroke.

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    • "Therefore, it was claimed that this process can be regarded as a neurorestorative event promoting formation of new neurons from adult brain's own neural stem cells (NSC) [8,9]. Although factors such as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-alpha), monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1) are increased after ischemic stroke the most important seems to be VEGF and its receptor which are increased in the periphery of the ischemic zone at 3 hours after stroke [10,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis represents a form of neovascularisation of exceptional importance in numerous pathological conditions including stroke. In this context it is directly related to neuroregeneration which is seen in close proximity. However, numerous experimental data have been drawn from studies that have ignored the age criterion. This is extremely important as angiogenesis is different in young versus old subjects. Extrapolating data obtained from studies performed in young subjects or "in vitro" to old-age patients could lead to inexact conclusions since the dynamics of angiogenesis is age-dependent. The current review covers the key features of brain senescence including morphological and functional changes related to the brain parenchyma, its vascular network and blood flow which could possibly influence the process of angiogenesis. This is followed by a description of post-stroke angiogenesis and its relationship to neuroregeneration and its modulation by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF 1), the most important factors active in old brain after ischemic injury.
    Journal of Angiogenesis Research 11/2010; 2(1):26. DOI:10.1186/2040-2384-2-26
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    Signals, Systems and Computers, 2005. Conference Record of the Thirty-Ninth Asilomar Conference on; 01/2005
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is a feature of the atherogenic process, with intimal neovascularisation arising from vessels in the adventitia, adjacent to a plaque. Immature, leaky blood vessels from unstable plaques proliferate abnormally and, being poorly invested with smooth muscle cells, may contribute to instability of the plaque by facilitation of inflammatory cell infiltration and haemorrhagic complications. We used laser-capture microdissection to isolate angiogenic areas of the extracellular matrix (containing CD105/flt-1-positive, fragile thin-walled vessels) and non-angiogenic vascular areas (CD105-negative, with smooth muscle cell covering) of complicated endarterectomy plaques, and specifically designed angiogenesis-TaqMan real-time PCR microarrays to identify gene expression. Important pro-angiogenic components, including Notch-3, delta-like-4 (DLL4), Tie-2, angiopoietin-1 (Angio-1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and one anti-angiogenic factor, endostatin, were up-regulated in these regions. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated localisation within intimal, active (CD105-positive) microvessels and co-localisation of Notch-3 and DLL4/Tie-2 and Angio-1 in the same vessels indicating multiple/synergistic signalling mechanisms associated with vessel development. These data, although providing only a snapshot of information, demonstrate that plaque vascularisation occurs in the presence of multiple angiogenically active factors. Knowledge of their combined effects could help in the formulation of novel therapeutics designed to stabilise or prevent their formation in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Vascular Research 12/2009; 47(4):323-35. DOI:10.1159/000265566 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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