Atraumatic splenic rupture in amyloidosis
ABSTRACT Splenic involvement in amyloidosis is rather frequent (5-10%). An atraumatic rupture of the affected spleen is however an extremely rare event. We report on a patient with undiagnosed amyloidosis who underwent emergency splenectomy for atraumatic splenic rupture.
Review of the literature and identification of 31 patients, including our own case report, with atraumatic splenic rupture in amyloidosis. Analysis of the clinical presentation, the surgical management, the nomenclature and definition of predisposing factors of splenic rupture.
We identified 15 women and 16 men (mean age 53.3 +/- 12.4 years; median 52, range: 27-82 years) with an atraumatic splenic rupture. Easy skin bruisability and factor X deficiency were detected in four (13%) and five patients (16%), respectively. The diagnosis of splenic rupture was made either by computed tomography (n = 12), ultrasound (n = 5), exploratory laparotomy (n = 9) or autopsy (n = 4). All patients underwent surgery (n = 27) or autopsy (n = 4). Amyloidosis was previously diagnosed in nine patients (29%). In the remaining 22 patients (71%), the atraumatic splenic rupture represented the initial manifestation of amyloidosis. Twenty-five patients (81%) suffered from primary (AL) and four patients (13%) from secondary amyloidosis (AA). In two patients, the type of amyloidosis was not specified. A moderate splenomegaly was a common feature (68%) and the characteristic intraoperative finding was an extended subcapsular hematoma with a limited parenchymal laceration (65%). In five patients with known amyloidosis, the atraumatic splenic rupture was closely associated with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) (16%). Three patients were suffering from multiple myeloma (10%). A biopsy-proven amyloidotic liver involvement was present in 14 patients (45%), which lead to atraumatic liver rupture in two patients. The splenic rupture related 30-day mortality was 26% (8/31).
Atraumatic splenic rupture in amyloidosis is associated with a high 30-day mortality. It occurs predominantly in patients with previously undiagnosed amyloidosis. A moderate splenomegaly, coagulation abnormalities (easy skin bruisability, factor X deficiency) and treatment of amyloidosis with ASCT are considered predisposing factors for an atraumatic splenic rupture.
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ABSTRACT: Atraumatic splenic rupture (ASR) is an ill defined clinicopathological entity. The aim was to characterize aetiological and risk factors for ASR-related mortality in order to aid disease classification and treatment. A systematic literature review (1980-2008) was undertaken and logistic regression analysis employed. Some 632 publications reporting 845 patients were identified. The spleen was normal in 7.0 per cent (atraumatic-idiopathic rupture). One, two or three aetiological factors were found in 84.1, 8.2 and 0.7 per cent respectively (atraumatic-pathological rupture). Six major aetiological groups were defined: neoplastic (30.3 per cent), infectious (27.3 per cent), inflammatory, non-infectious (20.0 per cent), drug- and treatment-related (9.2 per cent) and mechanical (6.8 per cent) disorders, and normal spleen (6.4 per cent). Treatment comprised total splenectomy (84.1 per cent), organ-preserving surgery (1.2 per cent) or conservative measures (14.7 per cent). The ASR-related mortality rate was 12.2 per cent. Splenomegaly (P = 0.040), age above 40 years (P = 0.007) and neoplastic disorders (P = 0.008) were associated with increased ASR-related mortality on multivariable analysis. The condition can be classified simply into atraumatic-idiopathic (7.0 per cent) and atraumatic-pathological (93.0 per cent) splenic rupture. Splenomegaly, advanced age and neoplastic disorders are associated with increased ASR-related mortality.British Journal of Surgery 10/2009; 96(10):1114-21. DOI:10.1002/bjs.6737 · 5.21 Impact Factor
Article: Renal amyloidosis in children[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Renal amyloidosis is a detrimental disease caused by the deposition of amyloid fibrils. A child with renal amyloidosis may present with proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome. Chronic renal failure may follow. Amyloid fibrils may deposit in other organs as well. The diagnosis is through the typical appearance on histopathology. Although chronic infections and chronic inflammatory diseases used to be the causes of secondary amyloidosis in children, the most frequent cause is now autoinflammatory diseases. Among this group of diseases, the most frequent one throughout the world is familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). FMF is typically characterized by attacks of clinical inflammation in the form of fever and serositis and high acute-phase reactants. Persisting inflammation in inadequately treated disease is associated with the development of secondary amyloidosis. The main treatment is colchicine. A number of other monogenic autoinflammatory diseases have also been identified. Among them cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is outstanding with its clinical features and the predilection to develop secondary amyloidosis in untreated cases. The treatment of secondary amyloidosis mainly depends on the treatment of the disease. However, a number of new treatments for amyloid per se are in the pipeline.Pediatric Nephrology 03/2011; 26(8):1215-27. DOI:10.1007/s00467-011-1797-x · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atraumatic splenic rupture is an uncommon but poorly defined clinical condition. Its diagnosis may be missed or delayed because of low clinical suspicion, especially in the absence of trauma. The primary aim of this study was to describe the experience with atraumatic splenic rupture in a district general hospital. Over a 6-year period (2004-2010), seven patients were identified, producing an incidence of 1.2/year. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis preoperatively in all the cases where it was performed (n=5). All patients required total splenectomy; indications included peritonitis, hypovolaemic shock and failed conservative treatment. Five splenectomies were performed within 24 h of admission. In four cases, no pathological abnormality was identified (atraumatic-idiopathic); abnormal pathologies (atraumatic-pathological) in the remaining three were amyloidosis, lymphoma and focal thrombosis. A high index of suspicion should be maintained by emergency physicians and surgeons during initial evaluation of these patients. Computed tomography scan facilitates the diagnosis and early total splenectomy is often needed.European Journal of Emergency Medicine 04/2011; 18(2):124-6. DOI:10.1097/MEJ.0b013e32833ddeb5 · 1.50 Impact Factor