Optical properties of the breast during spontaneous and birth control pill-mediated menstrual cycles.
ABSTRACT Mastodynia is correlated with the menstrual cycle. Using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS), we investigated changes in breast perfusion in women who were or were not using hormonal contraception. Healthy volunteers, on or not on hormonal contraception, were examined. Optical properties were measured in all quadrants of both breasts, and physiological parameters were calculated. Measurements were repeated every other day during one complete menstrual cycle. Measurements were comparable in all quadrants. Data remained unchanged during the entire cycle in patients using hormonal contraception. However, a biphasic variation of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin (tHb), and water content (H(2)O) was observed in women not using contraception. tHb and H(2)O distinctly increased during the ovulation period and remained elevated throughout the luteal phase. It was concluded that FD-NIRS allows accurate measurement of optical properties of human breasts. As opposed to the menstrual cycles of persons using oral contraception, spontaneous menstrual cycles exhibit biphasic variations of tissue perfusion parameters. These findings are important for the investigation of mastodynia.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to confirm physiological reactions in the breast and brain in mothers during breastfeeding and collect basic objective data, aiming at effective support for breastfeeding. Ten healthy women who were exclusively breastfeeding their babies participated in this study. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated Hb (oxyHb) and deoxygenated Hb in the breasts and frontal cortex of these women during breastfeeding lactation were measured using double-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Changes were measured in three conditions: (1) in both breasts; (2) the ipsilateral breast and frontal cortex; and (3) the contralateral breast and frontal cortex. OxyHb and total Hb (totalHb) levels in the bilateral breasts decreased significantly after the onset of breastfeeding in comparison with prebreastfeeding levels. These two values repeatedly increased and decreased thereafter. In the frontal cortex, regardless of which breast was involved, oxyHb and totalHb levels increased significantly in comparison with prebreastfeeding levels. Similar hemodynamic changes occurred simultaneously in the bilateral breasts during breastfeeding regardless of the feeding or nonfeeding side. Hemodynamic changes were also noted in the frontal cortex, but the reactions in the breast and prefrontal cortex were different and not synchronous, confirming that the physiological circulatory dynamics during breastfeeding vary among organs.Pediatric Research 06/2011; 70(4):400-5. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Variations during breast tissue development can influence later breast cancer risk. In particular, prolonged nulliparity increases risk. The authors used optical spectroscopy to compare breast tissue in 115 nulliparous women aged 31-40 (group 2) to 140 nulliparous women aged 18-21 (group 1), and also to 36 parous women aged 31-40 (group 3), and to evaluate the relationship between IGF-1 and optical breast tissue properties. IGF-1 has been linked in particular to premenopausal breast cancer. The authors measured the transmission spectra from 625 to 1050 nm wavelengths in each breast and determined regions of interindividual variation using principal components analysis. Spectral differences represent variation in lipid, water, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and collagen content. Group differences and the relationship with IGF-1 were estimated by linear regression after adjustment for multiple factors including height, weight, ethnicity, hormonal contraceptive use, and days since last menstrual period. Principal component 3 scores were more negative in the older nulliparous women compared to either younger nulliparous women or to parous women of the same age (beta = -0.16, p = 0.008 for group 2 vs group 1 and beta = 0.51, p = 0.03 for group 3 vs group 2). These differences appear to indicate increased deoxyhemoglobin relative to oxyhemoglobin content in the tissue of the older, nulliparous premenopausal women compared to the other groups, which may be an indicator of proportionally increased proliferative tissue. Principal component 4 also differed between older and younger nulliparous women (beta = 0.08, p = 0.02 for group 2 vs. group 1) and was negatively associated with IGF-1 in younger women (beta = -0.0004, p = 0.03) and positively associated with IGF-1 in older women (beta = 0.001, p = 0.004). Optical spectroscopy may be useful to identify breast tissue at increased risk of cancer development and track changes over time, particularly in young women where exposure to radiation is of particular concern. Additional work is needed to confirm the observed breast tissue differences and to determine the specific tissue chromophore changes with age and parity.Medical Physics 02/2010; 37(2):419-26. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spatial dependence of the optical properties of the female breast was investigated in the wavelength range 600–1000nm using a fully automated system for time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy. Both absorption and reduced scattering spectra of the breast of two healthy volunteers, having different ages (24 and 44 years), were measured at eight different angular positions (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315°), and age-related changes in the optical properties of breast were investigated. Both absorption and scattering properties change remarkably as a function of position. They also differ for the two subjects of different age. The best-fit of breast spectra with the combination of the absorption spectra of water, lipid, oxy-, and deoxyhemoglobin related the observed changes to the heterogeneous distribution of the main tissue constituents in the breast. The reduced scattering spectra were interpreted based on approximate Mie theory, which provides structural information about the tissue.Medical Laser Application 01/2010; 25(3):138-146.