Optical properties of the breast during spontaneous and birth control pill-mediated menstrual cycles.
ABSTRACT Mastodynia is correlated with the menstrual cycle. Using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS), we investigated changes in breast perfusion in women who were or were not using hormonal contraception. Healthy volunteers, on or not on hormonal contraception, were examined. Optical properties were measured in all quadrants of both breasts, and physiological parameters were calculated. Measurements were repeated every other day during one complete menstrual cycle. Measurements were comparable in all quadrants. Data remained unchanged during the entire cycle in patients using hormonal contraception. However, a biphasic variation of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin (tHb), and water content (H(2)O) was observed in women not using contraception. tHb and H(2)O distinctly increased during the ovulation period and remained elevated throughout the luteal phase. It was concluded that FD-NIRS allows accurate measurement of optical properties of human breasts. As opposed to the menstrual cycles of persons using oral contraception, spontaneous menstrual cycles exhibit biphasic variations of tissue perfusion parameters. These findings are important for the investigation of mastodynia.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to confirm physiological reactions in the breast and brain in mothers during breastfeeding and collect basic objective data, aiming at effective support for breastfeeding. Ten healthy women who were exclusively breastfeeding their babies participated in this study. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated Hb (oxyHb) and deoxygenated Hb in the breasts and frontal cortex of these women during breastfeeding lactation were measured using double-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Changes were measured in three conditions: (1) in both breasts; (2) the ipsilateral breast and frontal cortex; and (3) the contralateral breast and frontal cortex. OxyHb and total Hb (totalHb) levels in the bilateral breasts decreased significantly after the onset of breastfeeding in comparison with prebreastfeeding levels. These two values repeatedly increased and decreased thereafter. In the frontal cortex, regardless of which breast was involved, oxyHb and totalHb levels increased significantly in comparison with prebreastfeeding levels. Similar hemodynamic changes occurred simultaneously in the bilateral breasts during breastfeeding regardless of the feeding or nonfeeding side. Hemodynamic changes were also noted in the frontal cortex, but the reactions in the breast and prefrontal cortex were different and not synchronous, confirming that the physiological circulatory dynamics during breastfeeding vary among organs.Pediatric Research 06/2011; 70(4):400-5. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preterm labor is a common obstetric complication. Clinical evaluation of cervical ripening to predict preterm labor is very inaccurate. We used frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) to non-invasively investigate the changes of the optical properties (i.e., absorption and scattering of light) in the uterine cervix during regular pregnancies. Optical properties of uterine cervices were measured in 13 patients at various time points of regular pregnancies. For each gestational trimester, mean values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration (O(2)Hb, HHb, tHb), tissue oxygen saturation and water content and statistically significant differences between the trimesters were determined. The wavelength-dependent scattering (scatter power) was calculated by an exponential fit. O(2)Hb, and tHb and the scatter power showed an increase as a function of the gestational age. Differences between the second and the third trimester were statistically significant. HHb and the water content showed no significant change over time. Our results show that FD-NIRS is a promising diagnostic tool for providing information about cervical content of hemoglobin, water, and extracellular matrix proteins. We propose this technology to assess the cervical ripening and eventually to predict preterm labor.Lasers in Medical Science 03/2011; 26(2):205-12. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spatial dependence of the optical properties of the female breast was investigated in the wavelength range 600–1000nm using a fully automated system for time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy. Both absorption and reduced scattering spectra of the breast of two healthy volunteers, having different ages (24 and 44 years), were measured at eight different angular positions (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315°), and age-related changes in the optical properties of breast were investigated. Both absorption and scattering properties change remarkably as a function of position. They also differ for the two subjects of different age. The best-fit of breast spectra with the combination of the absorption spectra of water, lipid, oxy-, and deoxyhemoglobin related the observed changes to the heterogeneous distribution of the main tissue constituents in the breast. The reduced scattering spectra were interpreted based on approximate Mie theory, which provides structural information about the tissue.Medical Laser Application 01/2010; 25(3):138-146.