Optical properties of the breast during spontaneous and birth control pill-mediated menstrual cycles
Gynecology Clinic, University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland. Lasers in Medical Science
(Impact Factor: 2.49).
04/2009; 24(6):901-7. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-009-0662-7
Mastodynia is correlated with the menstrual cycle. Using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS), we investigated changes in breast perfusion in women who were or were not using hormonal contraception. Healthy volunteers, on or not on hormonal contraception, were examined. Optical properties were measured in all quadrants of both breasts, and physiological parameters were calculated. Measurements were repeated every other day during one complete menstrual cycle. Measurements were comparable in all quadrants. Data remained unchanged during the entire cycle in patients using hormonal contraception. However, a biphasic variation of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin (tHb), and water content (H(2)O) was observed in women not using contraception. tHb and H(2)O distinctly increased during the ovulation period and remained elevated throughout the luteal phase. It was concluded that FD-NIRS allows accurate measurement of optical properties of human breasts. As opposed to the menstrual cycles of persons using oral contraception, spontaneous menstrual cycles exhibit biphasic variations of tissue perfusion parameters. These findings are important for the investigation of mastodynia.
Available from: Lothar Lilge
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ABSTRACT: Variations during breast tissue development can influence later breast cancer risk. In particular, prolonged nulliparity increases risk. The authors used optical spectroscopy to compare breast tissue in 115 nulliparous women aged 31-40 (group 2) to 140 nulliparous women aged 18-21 (group 1), and also to 36 parous women aged 31-40 (group 3), and to evaluate the relationship between IGF-1 and optical breast tissue properties. IGF-1 has been linked in particular to premenopausal breast cancer.
The authors measured the transmission spectra from 625 to 1050 nm wavelengths in each breast and determined regions of interindividual variation using principal components analysis. Spectral differences represent variation in lipid, water, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and collagen content. Group differences and the relationship with IGF-1 were estimated by linear regression after adjustment for multiple factors including height, weight, ethnicity, hormonal contraceptive use, and days since last menstrual period.
Principal component 3 scores were more negative in the older nulliparous women compared to either younger nulliparous women or to parous women of the same age (beta = -0.16, p = 0.008 for group 2 vs group 1 and beta = 0.51, p = 0.03 for group 3 vs group 2). These differences appear to indicate increased deoxyhemoglobin relative to oxyhemoglobin content in the tissue of the older, nulliparous premenopausal women compared to the other groups, which may be an indicator of proportionally increased proliferative tissue. Principal component 4 also differed between older and younger nulliparous women (beta = 0.08, p = 0.02 for group 2 vs. group 1) and was negatively associated with IGF-1 in younger women (beta = -0.0004, p = 0.03) and positively associated with IGF-1 in older women (beta = 0.001, p = 0.004).
Optical spectroscopy may be useful to identify breast tissue at increased risk of cancer development and track changes over time, particularly in young women where exposure to radiation is of particular concern. Additional work is needed to confirm the observed breast tissue differences and to determine the specific tissue chromophore changes with age and parity.
Medical Physics 02/2010; 37(2):419-26. DOI:10.1118/1.3276737 · 2.64 Impact Factor
Available from: Hamid R Ghadyani
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ABSTRACT: The quantification of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) obtained from multi-modality image-guided near infrared spectroscopy (IG-NIRS) was characterized using the boundary element method (BEM) for 3D image reconstruction. Multi-modality IG-NIRS systems use a priori information to guide the reconstruction process. While this has been shown to improve resolution, the e(R)ect on quantitative accuracy is unclear. Here, through systematic contrast-detail analysis, the fidelity of IG-NIRS in quantifying HbT was examined using 3D simulations. These simulations show that HbT could be recovered for medium sized (20mm in 100mm total diameter) spherical inclusions with an average error of 15%, for the physiologically relevant situation of 2:1 or higher contrast between background and inclusion. Using partial 3D volume meshes to reduce the ill-posed nature of the image reconstruction, inclusions as small as 14 mm could be accurately quantified with less than 15% error, for contrasts of 1.5 or higher. This suggests that 3D IG-NIRS provides quantitatively accurate results for sizes seen early in treatment cycle of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the tumors are larger than 30 mm.
Optics Express 07/2010; 18(15):15917-35. DOI:10.1364/OE.18.015917 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spatial dependence of the optical properties of the female breast was investigated in the wavelength range 600–1000nm using a fully automated system for time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy. Both absorption and reduced scattering spectra of the breast of two healthy volunteers, having different ages (24 and 44 years), were measured at eight different angular positions (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, 315°), and age-related changes in the optical properties of breast were investigated. Both absorption and scattering properties change remarkably as a function of position. They also differ for the two subjects of different age. The best-fit of breast spectra with the combination of the absorption spectra of water, lipid, oxy-, and deoxyhemoglobin related the observed changes to the heterogeneous distribution of the main tissue constituents in the breast. The reduced scattering spectra were interpreted based on approximate Mie theory, which provides structural information about the tissue.
Medical Laser Application 08/2010; 25(3):138-146. DOI:10.1016/j.mla.2010.04.001
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