Mode of action of cytokines on nociceptive neurons.
ABSTRACT Cytokines are pluripotent soluble proteins secreted by immune and glial cells and are key elements in the induction and maintenance of pain. They are categorized as pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are mostly algesic, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which have analgesic properties. Progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the action of cytokines in pain. To date, several direct and indirect pathways are known that link cytokines with nociception or hyperalgesia. Cytokines may act via specific cytokine receptors inducing downstream signal transduction cascades, which then modulate the function of other receptors like the ionotropic glutamate receptor, the transient vanilloid receptors, or sodium channels. This receptor activation, either through amplification of the inflammatory reaction, or through direct modulation of ion channel currents, then results in pain sensation. Following up on results from animal experiments, cytokine profiles have recently been investigated in human pain states. An imbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression may be of importance for individual pain susceptibility. Individual cytokine profiles may be of diagnostic importance in chronic pain states, and, in the future, might guide the choice of treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a therapeutic approach to increase peripheral neutrophil counts after anti-tumor therapies. Pain is the major side effect of G-CSF. Intraplantar administration of G-CSF in mice induces mechanical hyperalgesia. However, the peripheral mechanisms involved in this effect were not elucidated. Therefore, the participation of pronociceptive cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1 beta (IL-1β) and antinociceptive cytokine IL-10 in G-CSF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in mice were investigated. G-CSF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was inhibited by systemic and local treatment with etanercept and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) or TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) deficiency and increased in IL-10 deficient mice. In agreement, G-CSF injection induced significant TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10 production in paw tissue. G-CSF-induced hyperalgesia was dose-dependently inhibited by thalidomide (5-45mg/kg) and pentoxifylline (0.5-13.5mg/kg), and treatment with these drugs inhibited G-CSF-induced TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10 production. The combined treatment with pentoxifylline or thalidomide with morphine, at doses that are ineffective as single treatment, diminished G-CSF-induced hyperalgesia through inhibiting cytokine production. Indomethacin also reduces G-CSF hyperalgesia alone or combined with pentoxifylline or thalidomide. Thus, G-CSF-induced hyperalgesia might be mediate by peripheral production of pronociceptive cytokines TNFα and IL-1β and down-regulated by IL-10. Systemic IL-1ra reduced G-CSF-induced increase of peripheral neutrophil counts. However, local treatment with morphine, IL-1ra or etanercept, and systemic treatment with indomethacin, etanercept, thalidomide and pentoxifylline did not alter G-CSF-induced mobilization of neutrophils. Therefore, this study advances in the understanding of G-CSF-induced hyperalgesia and suggests therapeutic approaches for its control. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.European Journal of Pharmacology 01/2015; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pathophysiologically relevant alterations in cytokine and neurotrophic factor levels have been reported in neuropathy subtypes. We characterized gene expression profiles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors in nerve and skin samples of patients with neuropathies of different etiologies. We prospectively studied 133 patients with neuropathies and compared data between subtypes and with healthy controls. All patients underwent sural nerve and/or skin punch biopsy at the lateral thigh and lower leg; controls received skin punch biopsies. Gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF, IL-10), neurotrophic factors (BDNF, NGF, NT3, TrkA), and erythropoietin with the erythropoietin receptor (Epo, EpoR) was analyzed. Sural nerve gene expression of the investigated cytokines and neurotrophic factors did not differ between neuropathies of different etiologies; however, IL-6 (p < 0.01) and IL-10 (p < 0.05) expression was higher in painful compared to painless neuropathies. Skin IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression was increased in patients compared to controls (p < 0.05), and IL-10 expression was higher in lower leg skin of patients with non-inflammatory neuropathies compared to inflammatory neuropathies (p < 0.05). Proximal and distal skin neurotrophic factor and Epo gene expression of patients with neuropathies was reduced compared to controls (NGF, NT3, Epo; p < 0.05). Neuropathies are associated with an increase in cytokine expression and a decrease in neurotrophic factor expression including nerve and skin.Journal of Neurology 11/2014; 262(1). · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of neuropathic pain in response to peripheral nerve lesion for a large part depends on microglia located at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Thus the injured nerve initiates a response of microglia, which represents the start of a cascade of events that leads to neuropathic pain development. For long it remained obscure how a nerve injury in the periphery would initiate a microglia response in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Recently, two chemokines have been suggested as potential factors that mediate the communication between injured neurons and microglia namely CCL2 and CCL21. This assumption is based on the following findings. Both chemokines are not found in healthy neurons, but are expressed in response to neuronal injury. In injured dorsal root ganglion cells CCL2 and CCL21 are expressed in vesicles in the soma and transported through the axons of the dorsal root into the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Finally, microglia in vitro are known to respond to CCL2 and CCL21. Whereas the microglial chemokine receptor involved in CCL21-induced neuropathic pain is not yet defined the situation concerning the receptors for CCL2 in microglia in vivo is even less clear. Recent results obtained in transgenic animals clearly show that microglia in vivo do not express CCR2 but that peripheral myeloid cells and neurons do. This suggests that CCL2 expressed by injured dorsal root neurons does not act as neuron-microglia signal in contrast to CCL21. Instead, CCL2 in the injured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) may act as autocrine or paracrine signal and may stimulate first or second order neurons in the pain cascade and/or attract CCR2-expressing peripheral monocytes/macrophages to the spinal cord.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 08/2014; 8:210. · 4.18 Impact Factor