Loss of RUNX3 expression correlates with differentiation, nodal metastasis, and poor prognosis of gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT RUNX3 is a major growth regulator of gastric epithelial cells that is involved in gastric tumorigenesis in both humans and mice. In this study, we investigated the involvement of RUNX3 in tumor progression, and in the prognosis of human gastric cancer.
We analyzed the extent of RUNX3 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 95 primary gastric adenocarcinomas, and correlated expression levels with clinicopathological parameters. We examined the effects of pFlag/RUNX3 on cell growth, apoptosis, and caspase-3 expression in AGS and SNU1 gastric cancer cell lines by colony-forming assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediate deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and Western blot analysis, respectively. The pFlag/RUNX3 effects on AGS invasion and migration potentials were also evaluated.
RUNX3 expression was lost in 37 (39%) cases of gastric cancer. The expression of RUNX3 in diffuse- and mixed-type cancers was less frequent than expression in intestinal-type cancer (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, the loss of RUNX3 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.02), and correlated with poor gastric cancer survival (P = 0.018). The growth of gastric cancer cells was suppressed after pFlag/RUNX3 transfection. The re-expression of RUNX3 resulted in the upregulation of caspase-3 and promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, Re-expression of RUNX3 induced significant inhibitions of AGS cell invasion and migration in vitro.
This work shows that loss of RUNX3 expression is highly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. The re-expression of RUNX3 may induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth as well as invasion/migration of cancer cells. These results indicate that the targeting of the RUNX3 pathway could represent a potential modality for treating gastric cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Ming Teh[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Loss of RUNX3 expression is suggested to be causally related to gastric cancer as 45% to 60% of gastric cancers do not express RUNX3 mainly due to hypermethylation of the RUNX3 promoter. Here, we examined for other defects in the properties of RUNX3 in gastric cancers that express RUNX3. Ninety-seven gastric cancer tumor specimens and 21 gastric cancer cell lines were examined by immunohistochemistry using novel anti-RUNX3 monoclonal antibodies. In normal gastric mucosa, RUNX3 was expressed most strongly in the nuclei of chief cells as well as in surface epithelial cells. In chief cells, a significant portion of the protein was also found in the cytoplasm. RUNX3 was not detectable in 43 of 97 (44%) cases of gastric cancers tested and a further 38% showed exclusive cytoplasmic localization, whereas only 18% showed nuclear localization. Evidence is presented suggesting that transforming growth factor-beta is an inducer of nuclear translocation of RUNX3, and RUNX3 in the cytoplasm of cancer cells is inactive as a tumor suppressor. RUNX3 was found to be inactive in 82% of gastric cancers through either gene silencing or protein mislocalization to the cytoplasm. In addition to the deregulation of mechanisms controlling gene expression, there would also seem to be at least one other mechanism controlling nuclear translocation of RUNX3 that is impaired frequently in gastric cancer.Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(17):7743-50. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RUNX transcription factors function as scaffolds for interaction with various coregulatory proteins during developmental processes such as hematopoiesis, neurogenesis, and osteogenesis. The current view places RUNX proteins within the TGF-beta signaling pathway, although each one exhibits cell- and tissue-specific functions. In the case of RUNX3, recent data have suggested its function as a tumor suppressor factor and highlighted its involvement in immune cell differentiation and activation. The molecular mechanisms for the pleiotropic effects of Runx3 deficiency are not completely understood. The present article will summarize the known functional activities of RUNX3, emphasizing its role in myeloid cell gene expression and its potential contribution to the migratory and adhesive capabilities of this cell lineage.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 08/2006; 98(4):744-56. · 3.06 Impact Factor
Article: Tumor suppressor activity of RUNX3.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent analyses have revealed that RUNX family members play important roles in both normal developmental processes and carcinogenesis. Of the three known RUNX family members, RUNX3 has been shown to be involved in neurogenesis of the dorsal root ganglia, T-cell differentiation and tumorigenesis of gastric epithelium. Deletion of the Runx3 locus in mice resulted in hyperplasia of the gastric epithelium due to the stimulation of proliferation and suppression of apoptosis that was accompanied by a reduced sensitivity to TGF-beta1. In primary human gastric cancer specimens, RUNX3 is frequently inactivated by allele loss or gene silencing due to promoter hypermethylation. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer cell lines in nude mice decreased as the level of RUNX3 expression increased, which indicates that RUNX3 is a bona fide tumor suppressor of gastric cancers.Oncogene 06/2004; 23(24):4336-40. · 7.36 Impact Factor