To investigate the effect of pentoxifylline, an unspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on olfactory function.
Nineteen patients who received pentoxifylline to treat inner-ear conditions.
Evaluation of olfactory function (ie, odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification) before and after administration of pentoxifylline and assessment of nasal airflow.
Administration of pentoxifylline had no significant effect on nasal airflow (P = .84). After administration of pentoxifylline, patients demonstrated a decrease in odor threshold toward lower odor concentrations (P = .01). The odor threshold shift after administration of pentoxifylline was more pronounced in younger patients than in older patients (correlation between age and change in odor threshold: r = -.72; P = .001). No such changes were observed for suprathreshold olfactory tasks (odor discrimination and odor identification). Six of the 19 patients were found to have hyposmia. Two patients demonstrated a clinically significant decrease in odor threshold after drug administration.
The present findings may indicate a role for pentoxifylline in the treatment of olfactory loss. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed to verify whether pentoxifylline can improve olfactory sensitivity in patients with olfactory disorders.
"Zinc [87,88], vitamin A , and the antibiotic minocycline  have been shown to be ineffective in placebo-controlled studies. α-lipoic acid  and the phosphodiesterase inhibitors theophylline [92,93] and pentoxifylline  have not been tested in placebo-controlled studies yet. Peroral caroverine, an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist , as well as sodium citrate nasal spray  have been shown to be effective in placebo-controlled studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The negative consequences of olfactory dysfunction for the quality of life are not widely appreciated and the condition is therefore often ignored or trivialized.
1,000 patients with olfactory dysfunction participated in an online study by submitting accounts of their subjective experiences of how they have been affected by their condition. In addition, they were given the chance to answer 43 specific questions about the consequences of their olfactory dysfunction.
Although there are less practical problems associated with impaired or distorted odor perception than with impairments in visual or auditory perception, many affected individuals report experiencing olfactory dysfunction as a debilitating condition. Smell loss-induced social isolation and smell loss-induced anhedonia can severely affect quality of life.
Olfactory dysfunction is a serious condition for those affected by it and it deserves more attention from doctors who treat affected patients as well as from scientist who research treatment options.
BMC Ear Nose and Throat Disorders 07/2013; 13(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1472-6815-13-8
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Options for the treatment of hyposmia are limited;available therapies do not provide a long-lasting effect.A recent study suggests that an unspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE-I) increases olfactory sensitivity due to interaction with the signal transduction in the olfactory epithelium. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether theophylline, an unspecific PDE-I, evokes changes in the electro-olfactogram (EOG) which would support the hypothesis of a drug-related impact on signal transduction.In addition, the uptake of topically administered theophylline in the olfactory epithelium should be investigated. EOG was obtained in 29 samples of supravital mouse olfactory epithelia. Olfactory stimulation (phenylethyl alcohol, PEA and hydrogen sulfide, H2S) was performed using an air dilution olfactometer. Theophylline concentration in the olfactory epithelium of five samples was measured by means of high pressure liquid chromatography. Administration of theophylline resulted in a tendency towards smaller EOG amplitudes (p = 0.055), being reduced by 13 and 25% in response to stimulation with PEA or H2S,respectively. In comparison to the application of Ringer's solution, theophylline resulted in a significant (p = 0.031)decrease of the EOG amplitude. Latency was not significantly(p = 0.10) influenced by drug administration. The theophylline concentration in the olfactory epithelium ranged from 0.21 to 1.53 microg/mg. Theophylline seems to be taken up into the olfactory epithelium of supravital mice and to interact with the olfactory signal transduction.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 09/2009; 267(2):239-43. DOI:10.1007/s00405-009-1076-7 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate.
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