Major Depression and Antidepressant Treatment: Impact on Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes
ABSTRACT Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy incurs a low absolute risk for major malformations; however, other adverse outcomes have been reported. Major depression also affects reproductive outcomes. This study examined whether 1) minor physical anomalies, 2) maternal weight gain and infant birth weight, 3) preterm birth, and 4) neonatal adaptation are affected by SSRI or depression exposure.
This prospective observational investigation included maternal assessments at 20, 30, and 36 weeks of gestation. Neonatal outcomes were obtained by blinded review of delivery records and infant examinations. Pregnant women (N=238) were categorized into three mutually exclusive exposure groups: 1) no SSRI, no depression (N=131); 2) SSRI exposure (N=71), either continuous (N=48) or partial (N=23); and 3) major depressive disorder (N=36), either continuous (N=14) or partial (N=22). The mean depressive symptom level of the group with continuous depression and no SSRI exposure was significantly greater than for all other groups, demonstrating the expected treatment effect of SSRIs. Main outcomes were minor physical anomalies, maternal weight gain, infant birth weight, pregnancy duration, and neonatal characteristics.
Infants exposed to either SSRIs or depression continuously across gestation were more likely to be born preterm than infants with partial or no exposure. Neither SSRI nor depression exposure increased risk for minor physical anomalies or reduced maternal weight gain. Mean infant birth weights were equivalent. Other neonatal outcomes were similar, except 5-minute Apgar scores.
For depressed pregnant women, both continuous SSRI exposure and continuous untreated depression were associated with preterm birth rates exceeding 20%.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lynn T Singer, Jun 20, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Hsiang HuangGeneral hospital psychiatry 01/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.01.005 · 2.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15-44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995-2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002-2005). Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995 to 2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002 to late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions [95 % confidence interval (CI) 33.37-35.65] per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.41-0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004-June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95 % CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. We conclude that antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995 to late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy.Archives of Women s Mental Health 10/2013; 17(1). DOI:10.1007/s00737-013-0383-6 · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between antidepressant use in pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB). We searched English and non-English language articles via PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO (from their start dates through December 1st, 2012). We used the following keywords and their combinations: antidepressant, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), pregnancy, antenatal, prenatal, birthweight, birth weight, preterm, prematurity, gestational age, fetal growth restriction, intrauterine growth restriction, and small-for-gestational age. Published studies were considered eligible if they examined exposure to antidepressant medication use during pregnancy and reported data on at least one birth outcome of interest: PTB (<37 weeks gestation) or LBW (<2500 g). Of the 222 reviewed studies, 28 published studies met the selection criteria. Two authors independently extracted study characteristics from eligible studies. Using random-effects models, antidepressant use in pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW (RR: 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.70) and PTB (RR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.52-1.88). Studies varied widely in design, populations, control groups and methods. There was a high level of heterogeneity as measured by I2 statistics for both outcomes examined. The relationship between antidepressant exposure in pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes did not differ significantly when taking into account drug type (SSRI vs. other or mixed) or study design (prospective vs. retrospective). There was a significant association between antidepressant exposure and PTB for different types of control status used (depressed, mixed or nondepressed). Antidepressant use during pregnancy significantly increases the risk for LBW and PTB.General hospital psychiatry 10/2013; 36(1). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.08.002 · 2.90 Impact Factor